homework help 37619
Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points The primary purpose of the management process is to: A. develop organizational goals and make logical decisions. B. organize the various functions in a logical manner. C. ensure that all employees are working together effectively. D. achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points Achieving organizational goals efficiently and effectively: A. is necessary for making logical decisions. B. is the primary purpose of the management process. C. ensures that all employees will work together effectively. D. rarely occurs in private sector organizations. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points Based on customer surveys, a manager recognizes that satisfaction is lower than expected. He then calls customers to uncover the source of their dissatisfaction. This represents which function of management? A. Planning B. Communication C. Leading D. Controlling Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points How do top managers spend most of their time? A. Overseeing day-to-day operations B. Routine administrative tasks C. Implementing plans of first-line managers D. Making decisions and creating goals Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points Dale is Superintendent of Dexter High School. His job requirements are not associated with any particular management specialty. Dale would be working in what functional area? A. Operations B. Finance C. Production D. Administration Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points __________ skills are needed for specialized tasks within the organization. A. Human B. Organizational C. Conceptual D. Technical Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points Which managerial skill is likely to be especially important to managers who occupy roles such as disturbance handler, negotiator, and resource allocator? A. Conceptual B. Technical C. Interpersonal D. Analytic Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points The ability to prioritize work, to work efficiently and to delegate appropriately is a(n) __________ skill. A. technical B. time-management C. conceptual D. operational Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points The classical management perspective consists of: A. scientific management and administrative management. B. management science and scientific management. C. behavioral management and the operations management. D. contemporary management and behavioral management. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points The profits or losses generated by a firm are examples of which aspect of systems theory? A. Outputs B. Feedback loops C. Transformation processes D. Inputs Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points The __________ environment of a business that manufactures top-of-the-line cabinets includes computer-assisted design software that helps to convert wood and people’s ideas into lovely, functional cabinets. A. legal B. sociocultural C. technological D. political Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points BMW and Mercedes are best described as: A. strategic allies. B. competitors. C. customers. D. regulators. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is part of the internal environment of organizations? A. Employees B. Regulators C. Influence groups D. Customers Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points An organization’s obligation to protect and enhance the society in which it operates is called: A. legal responsibility. B. ethical responsibility. C. social responsibility. D. cultural responsibility. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points Clothing made in Sri Lanka and sold in the U.S. is an example of: A. importing/exporting. B. licensing. C. a joint venture/strategic alliance. D. direct investment. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points When Honda is allowed to import only 425,000 automobiles into the United States each year by the U.S. government, this is an example of a(n): A. quota. B. strategic alliance. C. joint venture. D. franchise agreement. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following represents an economic community? A. European Union (EU) B. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) C. United Nations (UN) D. International Monetary Fund (IMF) Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points U S cola producers voluntarily limit the number of beverages that they export to India each year. This is an example of: A. an export restraint agreement. B. direct investment. C. a strategic alliance. D. a licensing agreement. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points France charges taxes on American fruits and vegetables that are sold in France. This is: A. a joint venture. B. licensing. C. an export tariff. D. an import tariff. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points General Mills and Nestlé established Cereal Partners Worldwide to better compete with Kellogg in Europe. This is an example of: A. global sourcing. B. a licensing agreement. C. an export restraint agreement. D. a joint venture. Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points Goals set with and by lower-level managers are called: A. strategic. B. tactical. C. developmental. D. operational. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points When Proctor and Gamble compares its capabilities against competitors to find out whether the firm possesses any unique strengths, the firm is determining: A. a tactical goal. B. a strategic goal. C. an operational goal. D. its distinctive competencies. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points Strategic goals are set by: A. first-line managers. B. middle managers. C. top managers. D. stockholders. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following outlines the organization’s purpose, assumptions, values, and direction? A. Mission B. Purpose C. Strategic plan D. Strategic goal Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points The component of strategy that indicates how the organization intends to allocate resources is: A. resource deployment. B. scope. C. competitive advantage. D. synergy. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points Coca-Cola’s success in global marketing is the result of its distribution system and its marketing communications, which are two of the company’s: A. organizational weaknesses. B. environmental strengths. C. environmental weaknesses. D. organizational strengths. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points There are a lot of companies that make decorative items for the home. Franklin Mint makes decorative gift items that it sells as collectibles. For instance, each decorator plate that it markets is given a number, and only a finite quantity of each plate is manufactured. By use of a(n) __________ strategy, Franklin Mint distinguishes itself from other companies that make decorative items for the home. A. related diversification B. focus C. BCG D. diversification Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points __________ is a useful framework for managers to use as they plot business strategy over time. A. Portfolio approach B. Product life cycle C. Environmental SWOT analysis D. Porter model Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points Tide laundry detergent, manufactured by Proctor & Gamble, is the number-one selling detergent in the United States, although sales volume has been flat for years. In the U.S., in what stage of the product life is Tide laundry detergent? A. Growth B. Decline C. Focus D. Maturity Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is an advantage of unrelated diversification? A. Stable financial performance over time B. Reduced overhead costs C. Specific, detailed knowledge about each individual SBU D. Synergy Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points Decisions by managers of Time Warner to sell off Warner Music Group’s DVD and CD manufacturing, printing, packaging, physical distribution, and merchandising business was an example of a(n) __________ decision. A. programmed B. satisficing C. nonprogrammed D. irrational Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points Decision making under risk means the decision maker: A. has no data on which to base his or her decision. B. is risk-averse, avoiding risky investments. C. knows all the risks involved in the decision. D. can estimate decision data with some probability. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points Bar code scanning computers at checkout have greatly simplified the inventory __________ decisions. A. nonprogrammed B. certainty C. risk D. programmed Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points Suppose that a bank manager is trying to decrease turnover of his employees. He wants to develop as many possible courses of action as he can. At what stage of the rational decision-making process is this bank manager? A. Implementing the chosen alternative B. Selecting the best alternative C. Recognizing the decision situation D. Identifying alternatives Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points In the classical decision-making model, optimization means: A. implementing two or more alternatives simultaneously. B. choosing the alternative with the best overall expected outcomes. C. gathering the most complete information before making the decision. D. reaching a satisfactory level of performance. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points When a plant manager is attempting to find a site for a new plant and selects the first site that he finds that meets the basic requirements for price, utilities, and transportation, which decision-making strategy is this plant manager utilizing? A. Bounded rationality B. Escalation of commitment C. Satisficing D. Coalition Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points One advantage of group decision making is: A. groupthink. B. compromise. C. more information and knowledge are available. D. one person may dominate the group. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points A very strong-willed manager, when involved in a group decision, is often able to persuade the rest of the group to do what works best for him. Which disadvantage of group decision making is this group experiencing? A. Diversity of background B. Compromise C. Groupthink D. Domination by one member Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points When a plant manager who is trying to reduce turnover of production workers notices that turnover has decreased by 10 percent four months after he instituted a new training program, at which step in the rational decision-making process is this manager? A. Evaluating the results B. Identifying alternatives C. Recognizing the decision situation D. Selecting the best alternative Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points Bounded rationality is assumed in: A. the administrative model. B. the rational model. C. the irrational model. D. decision making under certainty. Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points The starting point for all job design activities is determining the level of desired job: A. specialization. B. rotation. C. enlargement. D. enrichment. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points An assembly operation includes four different jobs. Bob spends three weeks on each of these jobs and then starts the cycle over again with the first job of the operation. This is an example of job: A. specialization. B. rotation. C. enlargement. D. enrichment. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following alternatives to specialization gives individual workers more to do and keeps each worker on the same job all the time without giving more authority over and responsibility for the work? A. Job enlargement B. Job rotation C. Job enrichment D. Work teams Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points According to the job characteristics approach, when task significance is high, workers: A. do many tasks as part of their job. B. believe the task is important. C. perform a complete portion of the total job. D. have a lot of control over the tasks. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points Dell Computer Corporation sells virtually the same personal computers through any one of its three divisions: Personal, Business, and Education. This represents which type of departmentalization? A. Functional B. Product C. Customer D. Location Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points __________ is defined as clear and distinct lines of authority among all positions in an organization. A. Span of control B. Job rotation C. Job enrichment D. Chain of command Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points A wide span of management results in: A. a flat organization. B. many levels of management. C. a narrow organization. D. a tall organization. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points An organization where power and control are kept at the top levels of management is: A. specialized. B. centralized. C. decentralized. D. departmentalized. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points The process of linking together the activities of the various parts of an organization to promote harmonious movement toward organizational goals is called: A. centralization. B. specialization. C. decentralization. D. coordination. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is characteristic of the U-form design? A. Low requirement for coordination across departments B. Least effective for small organizations C. Responsibility for coordination and integration delegated to lower levels of management D. Departmentalization based on the kind of work being done Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points According to the Lewin model, the first step in change is called __________; in this step, individuals who will be affected by the impending change must be led to recognize why the impending change is necessary. A. unfreezing B. refreezing C. freezing D. change itself Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points The manager’s role as monitor is essential to which step in the comprehensive approach to change? A. Recognizing the need for change B. Understanding how to implement change C. Setting goals for change D. Selecting a change technique Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points Studies of the organization change process found that participation: A. reduces the need for communication. B. encourages employees to adopt differing perceptions. C. increases productivity and cooperation. D. increases productivity but has no effect on cooperation. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points In most change situations there are factors that will make the job of change more difficult and others that seem to ease the change process. The process by which the manager identifies and then eliminates as many of the forces against change as possible is called: A. facilitation. B. implementation. C. force-field analysis. D. participative development. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points When organizational change involves planned alteration of the work processes or work activities the change primarily involvesthe area of: A. people. B. technology and operations. C. social responsibility. D. strategy. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points Reengineering is needed when an organization: A. experiences entropy. B. is dominant in its market. C. changes its technology rapidly. D. wants to improve employee morale. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points When organization development consultants observe the communication patterns and methods of cooperation and conflict resolution in an organization they are using the intervention technique called: A. technostructural activities. B. process consultation. C. team building. D. coaching and counseling. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points The first stage of the organizational innovation process is: A. growing. B. applying. C. launching. D. developing. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points When a large business attempts to revitalize its entrepreneurial spirit through the employment of creative individuals, this is called: A. intrapreneurship. B. new venture formation. C. creativity. D. entrepreneurship. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points A(n) __________ is usually a middle manager who learns about a new product or service idea and becomes committed to it. This manager helps the inventor overcome resistance to change and convinces others to take the innovation seriously. A. product champion B. inventor C. sponsor D. venture capitalist Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points Those activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce are called: A. human resource management. B. selection. C. employee relations. D. labor relations. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points If an organization refuses to hire women as welders, this is an example of: A. an indirect form of discrimination. B. affirmative action. C. a direct form of discrimination. D. equal employment opportunity. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points If an organization uses an employment test that whites pass at a higher rate than African Americans, this is an example of: A. a direct form of discrimination. B. employment at will. C. affirmative action. D. an indirect form of discrimination. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points The Age Discrimination in Employment Act forbids discrimination against workers above which of the following ages? A. 40 B. 45 C. 50 D. 55 Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following requires that women and men be paid the same amount for doing the same jobs, assuming their qualifications and experience are equal? A. Equal Pay Act of 1963 B. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 C. Age Discrimination in Employment Act D. Fair Labor Standards Act Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points The systematic collection and recording of information about jobs in the organization is known as: A. job evaluation. B. job analysis. C. job specification. D. staffing. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points Forecasting personnel needs and availability and setting up programs to match the two are the specific parts of human resource: A. supervision. B. development. C. planning. D. programming. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following would probably have the highest content validity? A. Personality test B. An assessment center C. An aptitude test D. Job posting Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points Scrap rate, dollar volume of sales, and number of claims processed are all examples of: A. training methods. B. predictive validation methods. C. content validation methods. D. objective performance appraisal criteria. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points When a manager is evaluated by his or her superiors, peers, and subordinates, this is known as: A. employment at will. B. 360-degree feedback. C. recency error. D. halo error. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points In human resource management terminology, the incentive pay an employee receives is referred to as: A. benefits. B. compensation. C. the wage-benefit package. D. remuneration. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points The major difference between wages and salary is: A. salaries are higher than wages. B. salaries include benefits while wages do not. C. low-level employees earn salaries while managers receive wages. D. wages are based on hours worked while salary is based on contribution to the firm. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points The term that refers to a company’s wages in comparison with those of other companies is: A. wage-structure. B. salary. C. compensation. D. wage-level. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points An organization is considered diverse when: A. managers have been given diversity training. B. it allows all new applicants to join the organization. C. its members differ from each other. D. its makeup matches the makeup of the general population. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points A cafeteria benefits plan consists of: A. allowing employees to choose among a set of optional benefits. B. providing on-site lunches to employees during the work week. C. reimbursing employees for meals they buy for clients. D. paying employees’ wages for work they do during their lunch hour. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is a discussion process between union and management that focuses on agreeing to a written contract that will cover all relevant aspects of their relationship? A. Labor relations B. Collective bargaining C. The grievance procedure D. Certification Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points The means by which a labor agreement is enforced is the: A. grievance procedure. B. union rights clause. C. management rights clause. D. union security clause. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points Spouses of military members used to complain they could not find jobs because they moved every three years with the military. But with the increased demand for __________ some organizations value the ability to make a relatively short-term commitment by hiring them. A. temporary workers B. emergent workers C. task-oriented employees D. job-specific employees Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points The process of determining the relative value of jobs within the organization is known as: A. job analysis. B. job evaluation. C. the wage-level decision. D. the individual wage decision. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points Parking lot attendants for a major corporation earn less than executive vice presidents at the same corporation. This is an example of: A. an individual wage decision. B. a wage-structure decision. C. wage discrimination. D. wage-level decision. Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points If you accept a position with an organization that promises you advancement opportunities, the organization is providing: A. competencies. B. psychological contracts. C. inducements. D. tangibles. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points A person’s range of interests is captured in the personality trait of: A. self-efficacy. B. openness. C. self-monitoring. D. risk propensity. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points A supervisor who experiments with new ideas, takes a chance with new products, and leads his or her department in new directions has high: A. locus of control. B. self-esteem. C. risk propensity. D. competencies. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points If you admire your CEO but find out there were questionable accounting practices under his watch, you might blame only the CFO because of: A. selective perception. B. perception. C. objective reality. D. stereotyping. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points The extent to which others in the same situation behave in the same way is known as: A. consistency. B. consensus. C. distinctiveness. D. stress. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following statements BEST describes the general relationship between stress and performance? A. As stress increases, performance will decrease. B. As performance increases, so does stress. C. As stress increases, performance will increase for a time. D. As stress increases, job satisfaction will decrease. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points __________ thinking allows people to see similarities between situations or events. A. Differentiated B. Divergent C. Convergent D. Creative Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points Unions usually bargain for retirement packages and good medical plans. Recently they have negotiated for advance notice of plant closings. What need level from Maslow’s hierarchy do these demands represent? A. Physiological B. Esteem C. Belongingness D. Security Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points The theory that assumes that people make choices from among alternative plans of behavior based on their perceptions of the relationship between a given behavior and desired outcomes is __________ theory. A. two-factor B. equity C. reinforcement D. expectancy Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points What is the most important idea for managers to remember from equity theory? A. Over-rewarded employees perform best. B. Under-rewarded employees perform best. C. For rewards to motivate employees, employees must perceive them as being fair. D. Employees must consider their inputs equal to the inputs of their comparison other. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points Sexual harassment policies and laws spell out the consequences for violation of the rules. What kind of reinforcement procedure is this? A. Avoidance B. Extinction C. Positive reinforcement D. Punishment Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following reinforcement schedules offers a worker the least incentive to do good work? A. Fixed-interval B. Fixed-ratio C. Variable-interval D. Variable-ratio Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points If a credit-card company that hires telemarketers to call prospective customers to try to sell them on a new credit card gives these telemarketers a $2.00 bonus for every fourth application the company receives from their phone solicitation this is an example of which type of reinforcement schedule? A. Fixed-ratio B. Fixed-interval C. Variable-interval D. Variable-ratio Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following programs applies the concepts of reinforcement theory? A. Modified workweek B. Work redesign C. Behavior modification D. Attribution theory Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points A supervisor’s use of coercion also involves the: A. use of distortion. B. use of extinction. C. use of positive reinforcement. D. loss of leadership. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points What approach to identifying a leader are you using if you vote for a politician based on his or her communication skills, intelligence, education, and assertiveness? A. Fiedler’s contingency B. Vroom’s decision tree approach C. Path-goal theory D. Trait Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is a situational leadership model? A. Trait approach B. Path-goal theory C. Ohio State studies D. Leadership Grid Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points __________ leadership is a contemporary perspective that focuses on a leader’s personality and ability to inspire loyalty and enthusiasm. A. Charismatic B. Entrepreneurial C. Symbolic D. Integrative Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points As more companies become multinational corporations the need for __________ leadership has increased. A. cross-cultural B. charismatic C. transformational D. political Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points In deciding which Vroom decision tree to use, the leader must consider __________ and the significance of the decision. A. time B. the availability of information C. the decision style used D. individuals Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points Sales forecasting, economic forecasting, and environmental analysis are examples of the control of: A. physical resources. B. human resources. C. information resources. D. financial resources. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points Equipment control is an important aspect of which area of control? A. Physical resources B. Human resources C. Information resources D. Financial resources Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points When classifying controls on the basis of the resources involved, we find that one class of resources is related to the control of all other resource classes as well. Which resource class overlaps all other classes? A. Physical resources B. Human resources C. Financial resources D. Information resources Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points A company that carefully evaluates job applicants is using __________ control. A. screening B. cybernetic C. postaction D. preliminary Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points What type of control is exercised when assembly line workers check their work as they assemble the components? A. Screening control B. Preliminary control C. Postaction control D. Human resources control Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is a characteristic of screening controls? A. Take place during the transformation process B. Involve interviewing potential employees C. Are the same as preliminary controls D. Determine organizational flexibility Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following financial documents shows a listing of all the organization’s assets and liabilities at a given point in time? A. Balance sheet B. Balance sheet budget C. Income statement D. Revenue budget Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points The ratios that assess the ease with which the assets of the organization can be converted into cash are: A. liquidity ratios. B. profitability ratios. C. debt ratios. D. None of the above Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points The purpose of bureaucratic control is to: A. enhance employee participation in the control function. B. produce performance above minimum acceptable standards. C. get employee compliance. D. increase group performance. Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points Organizations make the decision to have a centralized or decentralized international control system when they are addressing issues of __________ control. A. operational B. strategic C. financial D. bureaucratic Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points An organization that transforms resources into an intangible output in order to create time or place utility for its customers is known as a(n) __________ company. A. outsourcing B. service C. manufacturing D. ISO 9000 Reset Selection Mark for Review What’s This? Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following decisions is likely t
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homework help 37618
Use the information in the following adjusted trial balance for the Webb Trucking Company.
Long-term notes payable
K. Webb, Capital
K. Webb, Withdrawals
Trucking fees earned
Office supplies expense
Calculate the current ratio. (Assume that the industry average for the current ratio is 1.5.) (Round your answer to 2 decimal places.)
Compare Webb’s current ratio with the industry average.
Webb’s current ratio is above the industry average.
Webb’s current ratio is below the industry average.
The following adjusted trial balance of Webb Trucking Company.
Long-term notes payable
K. Webb, Capital
K. Webb, Withdrawals
Trucking fees earned
Office supplies expense
The K. Webb, Capital, account balance is $160,160 at December 31, 2010.
Prepare the income statement for the year ended December 31, 2011. (Input all amounts as positive values. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
WEBB TRUCKING COMPANY
For Year Ended December 31, 2011
Long-term notes payable
K. Webb, Capital
K. Webb, Withdrawals
Trucking fees earned
Office supplies expense
Using the above adjusted trial balance to prepare Webb Trucking Company’s classified balance sheet as of December 31, 2011. (Be sure to list the assets and liabilities in order of their liquidity. Negative amounts should be indicated by a minus sign. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
WEBB TRUCKING COMPANY
December 31, 2011
The following unadjusted trial balance contains the accounts and balances of Dalton Delivery Company as of December 31, 2011, its first year of operations.
Unrecorded depreciation on the trucks at the end of the year is $8,505.
The total amount of accrued interest expense at year-end is $8,000.
The cost of unused office supplies still available at the year-end is $600.
Use the above information about the company’s adjustments to complete a 10-column work sheet.(Leave no cells blank – be certain to enter “0” wherever required. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
DALTON DELIVERY COMPANY
For Year Ended December 31, 2011
& Statement of
Long-term notes payable
V. Dalton, Capital
V. Dalton, Withdrawals
Delivery fees earned
Office supplies expense
Prepare the year-end closing entries for Dalton Delivery Company as of December 31, 2011. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Delivery fees earnedDepreciation expense-trucksRepairs expense-trucksIncome summarySalaries expenseOffice supplies expenseV. Dalton, WithdrawalsInterest expense
(Click to select)V. Dalton, WithdrawalsIncome summaryOffice supplies expenseSalaries expenseRepairs expense-trucksDelivery fees earnedInterest expenseDepreciation expense-trucks
(Click to select)V. Dalton, WithdrawalsRepairs expense-trucksSalaries expenseInterest expenseDepreciation expense-trucksIncome summaryDelivery fees earnedOffice supplies expense
(Click to select)Repairs expense-trucksDelivery fees earnedOffice supplies expenseSalaries expenseInterest expenseV. Dalton, WithdrawalsDepreciation expense-trucksIncome summary
(Click to select)V. Dalton, WithdrawalsIncome summaryDelivery fees earnedOffice supplies expenseRepairs expense-trucksSalaries expenseInterest expenseDepreciation expense-trucks
(Click to select)Income summaryV. Dalton, WithdrawalsOffice supplies expenseRepairs expense-trucksInterest expenseDelivery fees earnedDepreciation expense-trucksSalaries expense
(Click to select)Income summaryV. Dalton, WithdrawalsOffice supplies expenseInterest expenseDepreciation expense-trucksDelivery fees earnedSalaries expenseRepairs expense-trucks
(Click to select)Interest expenseSalaries expenseIncome summaryDepreciation expense-trucksRepairs expense-trucksV. Dalton, WithdrawalsOffice supplies expenseDelivery fees earned
(Click to select)Repairs expense-trucksSalaries expenseV. Dalton, CapitalDelivery fees earnedDepreciation expense-trucksInterest expenseIncome summaryOffice supplies expense
(Click to select)Interest expenseDelivery fees earnedV. Dalton, CapitalSalaries expenseDepreciation expense-trucksRepairs expense-trucksIncome summaryOffice supplies expense
(Click to select)Office supplies expenseV. Dalton, WithdrawalsDepreciation expense-trucksSalaries expenseIncome summaryDelivery fees earnedV. Dalton, CapitalInterest expense
(Click to select)Office supplies expenseDelivery fees earnedV. Dalton, WithdrawalsInterest expenseDepreciation expense-trucksV. Dalton, CapitalIncome summarySalaries expense
Determine the capital amount to be reported on its year-end balance sheet. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
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The following adjusted trial balance contains the accounts and balances of Showers Company as of December 31, 2011, the end of its fiscal year.
R. Showers, Capital
R. Showers, Withdrawals
Prepare the December 31, 2011, closing entries for Showers Company. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Income summarySalaries expenseRent expenseAccounts receivableServices revenueR. Showers, WithdrawalsDepreciation expense-equipmentSupplies expense
(Click to select)Accounts receivableSupplies expenseDepreciation expense-equipmentIncome summaryRent expenseR. Showers, WithdrawalsServices revenueSalaries expense
(Click to select)Income summaryR. Showers, CapitalDepreciation expense-equipmentR. Showers, WithdrawalsRent expenseInsurance expenseSalaries expenseSupplies expense
(Click to select)Salaries expenseR. Showers, CapitalIncome summaryInsurance expenseRent expenseDepreciation expense-equipmentR. Showers, WithdrawalsSupplies expense
(Click to select)R. Showers, WithdrawalsRent expenseDepreciation expense-equipmentInsurance expenseSupplies expenseSalaries expenseIncome summaryR. Showers, Capital
(Click to select)Salaries expenseIncome summaryDepreciation expense-equipmentInsurance expenseRent expenseR. Showers, WithdrawalsSupplies expenseR. Showers, Capital
(Click to select)Insurance expenseRent expenseSalaries expenseDepreciation expense-equipmentIncome summaryR. Showers, CapitalR. Showers, WithdrawalsSupplies expense
(Click to select)Rent expenseR. Showers, WithdrawalsInsurance expenseR. Showers, CapitalSupplies expenseSalaries expenseIncome summaryDepreciation expense-equipment
(Click to select)Supplies expenseSalaries expenseAccounts receivableServices revenueR. Showers, CapitalDepreciation expense-equipmentIncome summaryRent expense
(Click to select)Salaries expenseAccounts receivableIncome summaryR. Showers, CapitalRent expenseDepreciation expense-equipmentServices revenueSupplies expense
(Click to select)R. Showers, CapitalDepreciation expense-equipmentRent expenseSupplies expenseR. Showers, WithdrawalsIncome summarySalaries expenseServices revenue
(Click to select)R. Showers, CapitalServices revenueRent expenseDepreciation expense-equipmentIncome summaryR. Showers, WithdrawalsSupplies expenseSalaries expense
Prepare the December 31, 2011, post-closing trial balance for Showers Company. (The items in the Trial Balance should be grouped as follows: Assets, Liabilities and Equity. Be sure to list the asset in order of liquidity. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
Post-Closing Trial Balance
December 31, 2011
(Click to select)Accumulated depreciation-equipmentEquipmentSuppliesCashPrepaid insurance
(Click to select)Prepaid insuranceSuppliesAccumulated depreciation-equipmentCashEquipment
(Click to select)Prepaid insuranceCashSuppliesAccumulated depreciation-equipmentEquipment
(Click to select)SuppliesPrepaid insuranceEquipmentAccumulated depreciation-equipmentCash
(Click to select)EquipmentSuppliesCashAccumulated depreciation-equipmentPrepaid insurance
(Click to select)Prepaid insuranceSuppliesEquipmentR. Showers, CapitalCash
The following two events occurred for Tanger Co. on October 31, 2011, the end of its fiscal year.
Tanger rents a building from its owner for $3,300 per month. By a prearrangement, the company delayed paying October’s rent until November 5. On this date, the company paid the rent for both October and November.
Tanger rents space in a building it owns to a tenant for $700 per month. By prearrangement, the tenant delayed paying the October rent until November 8. On this date, the tenant paid the rent for both October and November.
Prepare adjusting entries that the company must record for these events as of October 31. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Salaries payableSalaries expenseAccounts receivablePrepaid insuranceRent expenseRent payableAccounts payableCash
(Click to select)Accounts receivablePrepaid insuranceSalaries payableRent payableRent expenseSalaries expenseAccounts payableCash
(Click to select)Salaries expensePrepaid insuranceRent receivableCashAccounts receivableSalaries payableAccounts payableRent earned
(Click to select)Accounts payableCashRent earnedRent receivableAccounts receivablePrepaid insuranceSalaries expenseSalaries payable
Assuming Tanger does not use reversing entries, prepare journal entries to record Tanger’s payment of rent on November 5 and the collection of rent on November 8 from Tanger’s tenant. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)CashRent earnedAccounts receivable Rent payableAccounts payableRent expenseSalaries payablePrepaid insurance
(Click to select)Rent earnedCashAccounts payablePrepaid insurance Rent payableRent expenseAccounts receivableSalaries payable
(Click to select)Accounts receivableRent earnedPrepaid insuranceAccounts payableCashRent expenseRent payableSalaries payable
(Click to select)Rent expenseRent receivablePrepaid insuranceCashAccounts receivableRent earnedRent payableAccounts payable
(Click to select)Accounts receivableAccounts payableRent receivableRent expensePrepaid insuranceRent earnedRent payableCash
(Click to select)Rent receivableCashRent payablePrepaid insuranceAccounts receivableRent earnedAccounts payableRent expense
Assuming that the company uses reversing entries, prepare reversing entries on November 1 and the journal entries to record Tanger’s payment of rent on November 5 and the collection of rent on November 8 from Tanger’s tenant. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Accounts payableRent payableSalaries expenseAccounts receivableCashPrepaid insuranceRent expenseSalaries payable
(Click to select)Prepaid insuranceRent expenseRent payableCashSalaries expenseSalaries payableAccounts receivableAccounts payable
(Click to select)Rent earnedSalaries expenseCashRent receivablePrepaid insuranceAccounts receivableSalaries payableAccounts payable
(Click to select)Rent earnedAccounts payableSalaries expenseCashAccounts receivableRent receivablePrepaid insuranceSalaries payable
(Click to select)Accounts receivableRent expensePrepaid insuranceRent payableAccounts payableCashRent earnedSalaries payable
(Click to select)Rent earnedAccounts payablePrepaid insuranceAccounts receivableSalaries payableCashRent expenseRent payable
(Click to select)Rent earnedRent expenseCashRent payableSalaries payablePrepaid insuranceAccounts payableAccounts receivable
(Click to select)Rent earnedRent expenseSalaries payableCashRent payableAccounts payablePrepaid insuranceAccounts receivable
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Total current assets
Compute the current ratio and acid-test ratio for each of the above separate cases. (Round your answers to 2 decimal places.)
Which company case is in the best position to meet short-term obligations?
Using your accounting knowledge, find the missing amounts in the following separate income statements athrough e. (Amounts in parentheses do not require a minus sign in front of them. Input all amounts as positive values. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
Cost of goods sold
Merchandise inventory (beginning)
Total cost of merchandise purchases
Merchandise inventory (ending)
Cost of goods sold
Net income (loss)
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Taos Company purchased merchandise for resale from Tuscon Company with an invoice price of $16,300 and credit terms of 3/10, n/60. The merchandise had cost Tuscon $11,117. Taos paid within the discount period. Assume that both buyer and seller use a perpetual inventory system.
Prepare entries that the buyer should record for the purchase. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Salaries payableCost of goods soldCashAccounts receivableSalesAccounts payableMerchandise inventorySales discounts
(Click to select)Merchandise inventorySales discountsAccounts receivableSalaries payableSalesCashCost of goods soldAccounts payable
Prepare entries that the buyer should record for the cash payment. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)SuppliesAccounts payableAccounts receivableCashSales discountsMerchandise inventoryCost of goods soldSalaries payable
(Click to select)Accounts payableSales discountsSalaries payableMerchandise inventoryCashAccounts receivableSuppliesCost of goods sold
(Click to select)CashMerchandise inventorySales discountsSalaries payableAccounts payableCost of goods soldSuppliesAccounts receivable
Prepare entries that the seller should record for the sale. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)CashSalesAccounts receivableSales discountsSalaries payableMerchandise inventoryAccounts payableSelling expenses
(Click to select)Salaries payableSales discountsMerchandise inventorySalesCashSelling expensesAccounts payableAccounts receivable
(Click to select)Merchandise inventorySalesCost of goods soldSales returns and allowancesAccounts payableAccounts receivableCashSales discounts
(Click to select)Sales returns and allowancesMerchandise inventoryAccounts receivableAccounts payableCost of goods soldCashSales discountsSales
Prepare entries that the seller should record for the cash collection. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)CashMerchandise inventorySales allowanceUnearned revenueSalaries payableAccounts payableAccounts receivableSales discounts
(Click to select)Accounts payableSales allowanceSalaries payableCashSales discountsAccounts receivableUnearned revenueMerchandise inventory
(Click to select)Accounts payableMerchandise inventorySales allowanceAccounts receivableSales discountsUnearned revenueCashSalaries payable
Assume that the buyer borrowed enough cash to pay the balance on the last day of the discount period at an annual interest rate of 11% and paid it back on the last day of the credit period. Compute how much the buyer saved by following this strategy. (Use 365 days a year. Round your intermediate calculations and final answer to 2 decimal places. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
Buyer’s net savings
The following list includes selected permanent accounts and all of the temporary accounts from the December 31, 2011, unadjusted trial balance of Deacon Co., a business owned by Julie Deacon. Use these account balances along with the additional information to journalize (a) adjusting entries and (b) closing entries. Deacon Co. uses a perpetual inventory system.
Prepaid selling expenses
Sales returns and allowances
Cost of goods sold
Sales salaries expense
Accrued sales salaries amount to $1,700. Prepaid selling expenses of $2,400 have expired. A physical count of year-end merchandise inventory shows $32,177 of goods still available.
Deacon Co. uses a perpetual inventory system.
Using the above account balances and the additional information prepare adjusting entries. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Salaries payablePrepaid expensesSales allowanceSelling expensesMerchandise inventorySales salaries expenseIncome summaryUtilities expenseCost of goods sold
(Click to select)Sales allowanceSelling expensesMerchandise inventorySalaries payableUtilities expenseIncome summarySales salaries expenseCost of goods soldPrepaid expenses
(Click to select)Selling expensesSales salaries expenseMerchandise inventoryCost of goods soldAccrued salariesUtilities expenseIncome summaryPrepaid selling expensesSales allowance
(Click to select)Merchandise inventoryCost of goods soldUtilities expenseAccrued salariesIncome summarySales allowanceSales salaries expensePrepaid selling expensesSelling expenses
(Click to select)Prepaid selling expensesSelling expensesSales salaries expenseUtilities expenseCost of goods soldSuppliesSalaries payableCashMerchandise inventory
(Click to select)Selling expensesCost of goods soldPrepaid selling expensesUtilities expenseSalaries payableSales salaries expenseMerchandise inventoryCashSupplies
Using the above account balances and the additional information prepare closing entries. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
(Click to select)Utilities expenseSalaries expensesSelling expensesSales discountsIncome summarySalesCost of goods soldCommon stockDividends
(Click to select)DividendsSelling expensesCommon stockCost of goods soldSales discountsSalaries expensesUtilities expenseIncome summarySales
(Click to select)Cost of goods soldUtilities expenseSelling expensesIncome summaryAdministrative expensesCashSales returns and allowancesSales salaries expenseSales discounts
(Click to select)Income summarySales salaries expenseCost of goods soldSales discountsSelling expensesSales returns and allowancesUtilities expenseCashAdministrative expenses
(Click to select)Sales salaries expenseIncome summaryCashCost of goods soldAdministrative expensesUtilities expenseSales discountsSelling expensesSales returns and allowances
(Click to select)Sales discountsSelling expensesIncome summarySales returns and allowancesCost of goods soldAdministrative expensesSales salaries expenseUtilities expenseCash
(Click to select)CashSelling expensesSales salaries expenseSales returns and allowancesCost of goods soldAdministrative expensesIncome summarySales discountsUtilities expense
(Click to select)Selling expensesSales salaries expenseCashSales returns and allowancesUtilities expenseSales discountsCost of goods soldIncome summaryAdministrative expenses
(Click to select)Sales salaries expenseCashSales discountsUtilities expenseIncome summarySales returns and allowancesSelling expensesCost of goods soldAdministrative expenses
(Click to select)Sales salaries expenseCost of goods soldAdministrative expensesIncome summarySales discountsSales returns and allowancesSelling expensesUtilities expenseCash
(Click to select)Income summarySalaries expensesSalaries payablePrepaid selling expensesCommon stockDividendsSuppliesCashJ. Deacon, Capital
(Click to select)J. Deacon, CapitalIncome summaryDividendsPrepaid selling expensesCashSalaries expensesSuppliesSalaries payableCommon stock
(Click to select)DividendsJ. Deacon, CapitalSuppliesJ. Deacon, WithdrawalsAccounts payableSalaries expensesSalaries payableCommon stockPrepaid selling expenses
(Click to select)SuppliesJ. Deacon, CapitalSalaries payableAccounts payablePrepaid selling expensesJ. Deacon, WithdrawalsSalaries expensesCommon stockDividends
A company reports the following sales related information: Sales (gross) of $109,000; Sales discounts of $2,800; Sales returns and allowances of $8,000; Sales salaries expense of $5,100.
Prepare the net sales portion of the company’s multiple-step income statement. (Input all amounts as positive values. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
Multiple-Step Income Statement
(Click to select)Cost of salesSalesSales returns and allowancesOther expenseSales discounts
(Click to select)Less: Sales returns and allowancesLess: Sales discountsAdd: Sales returns and allowancesAdd: Sales discountsSales
(Click to select)Less: Sales discountsAdd: Sales discountsLess: Sales returns and allowancesSalesAdd: Sales returns and allowances
Chess Company uses LIFO for inventory costing and reports the following financial data. It also recomputed inventory and cost of goods sold using FIFO for comparison purposes.
LIFO cost of goods sold
FIFO cost of goods sold
Current assets (using LIFO)
Compute its current ratio, inventory turnover, and days’ sales in inventory for 2011 using (a) LIFO numbers and (b) FIFO numbers. (Use 365 days a year. Do not round intermediate calculations and round your final answers to 1 decimal place.)
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Top of Form
Ringo Company had $940,000 of sales in each of three consecutive years 2010–2012, and it purchased merchandise costing $520,000 in each of those years. It also maintained a $240,000 physical inventory from the beginning to the end of that three-year period. In accounting for inventory, it made an error at the end of year 2010 that caused its year-end 2010 inventory to appear on its statements as $220,000 rather than the correct $240,000.
Determine the correct amount of the company’s gross profit in each of the years 2010 – 2012. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
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Prepare comparative income statements to show the effect of this error on the company’s cost of goods sold and gross profit for each of the years 2010−2012. (Input all amounts as positive values. Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
Comparative Income Statements
(Click to select)SalesBeginning inventoryGoods available for saleEnding inventoryCost of purchases
Cost of goods sold
(Click to select)Beginning inventoryEnding inventorySalesAccounts payableGood available for sale
(Click to select)Ending inventoryAccounts payableCost of purchasesGood available for saleSales
(Click to select)SalesCost of purchasesGood available for saleEnding inventoryBeginning inventory
(Click to select)SalesGood available for saleCost of purchasesEnding inventoryBeginning inventory
Cost of goods sold
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Bottom of Form
Duke Associates, antique dealers, purchased the contents of an estate for $37,600. Terms of the purchase were FOB shipping point, and the cost of transporting the goods to Duke Associates’ warehouse was $1,250. Duke Associates insured the shipment at a cost of $160. Prior to putting the goods up for sale, they cleaned and refurbished them at a cost of $500.
Determine the cost of the inventory acquired from the estate. (Omit the “$” sign in your response.)
Cost of inventory
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Harold Co. reported the following current-year purchases and sales data for its only product.
Units Acquired at Cost
Units Sold at Retail
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homework help 37617
Create an 8- to 10-slide presentation, including detailed speaker notes, based on the Week 4 Persuasive Messages Part I assignment.
Apply the principles of designing effective slides discussed in the textbook as you develop your presentation.
Include at least one visual to support on your slides, for example, using a line chart to show increasing sales. Include the following in presentation slides:
- Impact if product or service does not sell as much as expected
- I have uploaded the assignment that you will need for this presentation
- I also have added some reading material that was used for this assignment
- Why Does This Matter?
Hear Pete Cardon explain why this matters.
In many business situations, you hope to persuade others. In internal business communications, you may want your boss, peers, or colleagues to consider or adopt your ideas when their perspectives differ from yours. In external business communications, you will want to persuade your clients, customers, and prospects to use your products and services. Persuasion involves influencing others to see the merits of your ideas and act on your requests, even when they initially resist. In this chapter, we explore strategies for persuading others through writing.
In some ways, all business messages contain an element of persuasion—that is, you are hoping to influence the way others think, feel, or behave. Many of the concepts in this chapter will enhance your ability to make any kind of request. However, the approaches in this chapter are most applicable to situations in which your audience will initially resist your requests.
Throughout this chapter, you will see examples of persuasive messages at Better Horizons Credit Union. The chapter case provides the background.
Chapter Case: Shifting Course at Better Horizons Credit Union
© Ingram Publishing
Haniz Zogby, marketing specialist and loan officer
- Started working at Better Horizons nearly five years ago. She has worked 20 to 30 hours per week while attending college with a major in finance and a minor in event management.
- Started as a teller. Within a few years, she was promoted to positions of teller supervisor, loan officer, and marketing specialist.
- Currently working on marketing initiatives under the direction of Christine Russo.
Christine Russo, president and CEO
- Has worked at Better Horizons for approximately ten years.
- Currently interested in increasing the number of young members. With declining numbers of young members, she is concerned that the credit union does not have good long-term prospects.
Christine Wants to Build Support for New Banking Services That Meet the Needs of Younger Members
Christine recognized that people under the age of 30 were not joining the credit union. Christine wanted to write a message to board members about adopting marketing strategies and services that appeal to younger members. She planned to follow up by presenting her ideas in person at an upcoming meeting. The board is composed of longtime members who favor what they consider a “personal,” “friendly,” and “homey” credit union environment. They view moves to online marketing and services as breaking their brand of community and personal touch. The majority also oppose adding too many extra financial services, perceiving these services as “slick” and “too similar to banks.”
Haniz Is in Charge of Recruiting Participants for a Local Charity Event
Christine asked Haniz to be in charge of recruiting credit union members to join this year’s Hope Walkathon to support research on breast cancer. Better Horizons has assembled a walkathon team for this prominent community event each year for nearly a decade. Haniz is writing an email to send to all credit union members. The message will be modified slightly to appear as an announcement on the credit union website as well.
Haniz Needs to Create a Flyer Explaining the Benefits of Credit Union Membership Compared to Banks
Haniz is working on a flyer describing the benefits of membership at Better Horizons Credit Union. The flyer will be part of a packet of materials that is distributed to community members who participate in free financial planning and income tax assistance seminars offered by Better Horizons. Haniz is using the message to highlight the benefits of Better Horizons compared to local banks.
Haniz Is Helping to Develop a Sales Message for Auto Loans
Haniz and several other employees are working on sales messages for auto loans. In recent months, Better Horizon’s senior management decided the credit union should become a “player” in the auto loans market. Few Better Horizons members take advantage of car loans, most assuming that dealer financing is cheaper and easier to get.
How will Christine and Haniz write a message to board members that warms them up to ideas about new online services and marketing geared toward gaining younger members? (See the section on internal persuasive messages.)
How will Haniz persuade credit union members to join the Hope Walkathon? (See the section on external persuasive messages.)
How will Haniz develop a general-purpose flyer that shows the broad benefits of choosing Better Horizons Credit Union over banks? (See the “Constructing External Persuasive Messages” section.)
How will Haniz develop sales messages for an auto loan campaign? (See the “Composing Mass Sales Messages” section.)
The Importance of Credibility in an Era of Mistrust and Skepticism
LO9.1. Describe the relationship between credibility and persuasion.
While credibility is critical to all business communications, its importance is heightened for persuasive messages. By definition, persuasion implies that you are communicating with someone who does not think or feel the same way as you do. So, your goal is to help your audience members identify with and find merit in your positions. If they question your credibility, they are unlikely to carefully consider your ideas, requests, or recommendations.
Persuasion is becoming more difficult as we live in a time of increasing mistrust. In Chapter 1, we discussed the declining levels of trust for nearly all professional groups, particularly business-related occupations. Michael Maslansky, one of the leading corporate communications experts, has labeled this the post-trust era (PTE):
Just a few years ago, salespeople, corporate leaders, marketing departments, and communicators like me had it pretty easy. We looked at communication as a relatively linear process. … But trust disappeared, things changed. … In a word, trust is out, skepticism is in.1
Over the past decade, Michael Maslansky and his colleagues have examined how language is used to persuade and motivate others. By interviewing hundreds of thousands of employees and customers in some 30 countries, they have found that the language of trust is more important than ever. Furthermore, they have noticed emerging trends in how language impacts trust. Strategies for persuasion that once worked are less effective in the PTE. Other strategies continue to work well. In this chapter, we sort through some of these basic principles of persuasive writing and identify those strategies that are most effective in the PTE.
Applying the AIM Planning Process to Persuasive Messages
LO9.2. Explain the AIM planning process for persuasive messages and the basic components of most persuasive messages.
Persuasion involves extensive planning: analyzing your audience to understand their needs, values, and how they are influenced; developing your ideas as you wrestle with the complicated business issues at hand; and creating a message structure that most effectively reduces resistance and gains buy-in. Many effective business communicators spend weeks and months learning about their target audiences, gathering information, and piecing together persuasive messages.
Understand Your Audience
To convince others to modify their own ideas and accept yours, you need to show that you care about them and that your ideas fit into their interests. This is the approach communication specialist Liz Simpson recommends:
To succeed at the persuasion game, you have to be absolutely committed to understanding the other side’s position as well as your own. Without that willingness to try on the other side’s arguments, you simply cannot be persuasive. From that understanding will come the insights you need to move the other side over to your camp.2
This is true not only for ideas but also for products and services. Your best argument is always one that meets the needs and wants of your audience.
Understanding the needs and values of others is not simple. It requires a strong listening orientation. You will need to ask lots of questions to get beyond a surface understanding about the hopes, expectations, and hidden assumptions of your target audience. Once you know your target audience’s needs and values, you are in a strong position to explain how your product, service, or idea benefits them.
In addition to understanding the needs and values of your target audience, you should consider the psychological principles that impact how people are influenced. Also, you should consider whether you are making a logical appeal or an emotional one in your persuasive messages.
Understand Methods of Influence
Dr. Robert Cialdini, a marketing psychologist, has spent his career studying how people are influenced in business and marketing environments. He has examined research in this area for four decades, plus he spent three years taking undercover jobs in car dealerships, telemarketing firms, fund-raising organizations, and other buyer-seller environments to learn the most influential ways of getting people to say yes. Based on his work, he has identified six principles of persuasion (aside from the price and quality of products and servies). These principles include reciprocation, consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity.3 Haniz’s message to recruit credit union members for the Hope Walkathon offers an interesting example for applying these various principles (see Figure 9.7, p. 258, for her completed message).
Reciprocation is a principle of influence based on returning favors. As defined by Cialdini, “We should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us.”4 Cialdini cited an interesting study in which a professor sent Christmas cards to a random sample of strangers to see what would happen. Many of the card recipients reciprocated, sending cards to the professor without attempting to find out who he was. The study showed that even card receivers who did not know the card sender and who might not interact with the card sender in the future felt compelled to return the favor of sending a card. People tend to feel obligated to pay back others when they’ve received something of value.5
Haniz uses the principle of reciprocation in her message in several ways. For example, she focuses on a lengthy reciprocal relationship that the credit union has with the local breast cancer center, and the walkathon serves as the mechanism that draws the two organizations together. The credit union helps the center by generating walkathon donations, and the center helps the credit union and the larger community through more effective breast cancer treatment and education. Furthermore, the message implies a reciprocal relationship between the credit union and its members by offering various free items, such as a T-shirt, a water bottle, and a cancer guide, to members who are willing to participate in the walkathon.
Consistency is based on the idea that once people make an explicit commitment, they tend to follow through or honor that commitment. In other words, they want to stay consistent with their original commitment. Cialdini cited several studies to make this point. In one, psychologists found that horse racing fans become more confident that their horses would win after placing a bet. Once they made a final commitment, they were further convinced of the correctness of their choice.6
Haniz appeals to commitment and consistency in several ways. Foremost, she appeals to the credit union’s long commitment to the fight against breast cancer. Some credit union members will want to continue to honor this long-standing collective commitment and will appreciate that their credit union is doing so. She also provides links in the message for people to immediately act on their interest in the walkathon. A link to register right now serves as an immediate commitment to participate.
Social proof is a principle of influence whereby people determine what is right, correct, or desirable by seeing what others do. Haniz employs several appeals to social proof in her letter. She describes the level of participation and contribution among members in last year’s walkathon, implying that the popularity and financial impact of this event make it a good cause. Also, the walkathon itself is a type of social proof; the gathering of thousands of people wearing team T-shirts and marching in unison for a cause is powerful imagery.7
Liking is a principle of influence whereby people are more likely to be persuaded by people who they like.8 Haniz appeals directly to this principle by describing Betty Williams, who is a breast cancer survivor, the benefactor of the breast center, a credit union member, and a participant in the walkathon. Betty Williams is presumably a person most people in the community know and like, a woman who many of the credit union members may know from running into her at the credit union or other community events, and a woman who is passionate about an important cause (a reason for liking). Haniz emphasizes in the message that walkathon participants will join this likable and respected community member at the walkathon.
Authority is a principle of influence whereby people follow authority figures. The number of celebrity endorsements in advertising is evidence of how authority can impact persuasion.9 Although Haniz does not appeal to a national celebrity, she does appeal to a prominent local community member—again Betty Williams. With Betty’s level of influence and personal experience combating cancer, she is likely seen as an authority. Furthermore, Haniz also appeals to members to support the Betty Williams Breast Center, a group of expert professionals who collectively are authorities on breast cancer.
Scarcity is a principle of influence whereby people think there is limited availability of something they want or need, so they must act quickly.10 Haniz employs this principle in terms of time. She explains that the walkathon occurs only once each year (limited time period to participate) and that participants must sign up by a given deadline (limited time period to sign up).
You will apply these principles most often in external persuasive messages, and you should always apply them fairly. Cialdini describes them as “weapons of influence.”11 The very term weapons implies that they are powerful and can do harm. In the “Apply the FAIR Test” section near the end of the chapter, we further discuss the appropriate use of these principles.
Persuade through Emotion and Reason
Most people justify their business decisions based on the soundness of ideas, not feelings. Savvy business communicators, however, understand the importance of injecting emotion into their persuasive messages. While they appreciate the place of reason in business and consumer decisions, they understand that resistance to ideas, products, and services is often emotional. Conversely, they are aware that their target audiences often possess strong emotional attachment to competing ideas, products, and services. Thus, effective communicators find ways to appeal to the core emotional benefits of products, services, and ideas.12
Even in internal persuasive messages, emotional appeals are critical, as indicated by Craig Conway, president and CEO of PeopleSoft:
Good communicators have an enormous advantage over poor communicators because so much of running a company is inspirational. … You just have to be able to persuade people that they are a part of something bigger. If you have a creative vision and you can communicate it in a compelling way to get people excited, you will recruit better people as a result. Then, it is easy to convince the world that you have a more dynamic company.13
Part of understanding your audience is identifying the needs and values that resonate emotionally for them.
Typically, internal persuasive messages focus mostly on logical appeals. External persuasive messages, with the exception of those that emphasize price, generally include strong emotional appeals. As you develop persuasive messages, think about how to get the right mix of logical and emotional appeals. Generally, you will supply both but emphasize one or the other. Keep in mind that even when you choose to make strong emotional appeals in written messages, you should generally avoid the tone of mass advertising, where exaggeration, sarcasm, and over-the-top appeals are acceptable and even effective. Later in the chapter, you will notice several messages created by Haniz and Christine—two based more strongly on logical appeals (Figures 9.5 and 9.8) and two on emotional appeals (Figures 9.7 and 9.9).
Develop Your Ideas
Idea development for persuasive messages is critical. Since your audience is resistant to the message, one of your key tasks is to establish credibility. Developing strong ideas in the interest of your audience helps you demonstrate your voice of competence. It involves gaining a deep understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of your ideas, products, and services. In addition, it involves gaining a thorough understanding of competing ideas, products, and services.
Thus, before attempting to persuade others, expert business communicators seek to understand products, services, and ideas in great depth so that they can speak from an authoritative and competent perspective. To address the issue of attracting younger credit union members, Christine and Haniz spend months learning about the strategies that other credit unions use. When Haniz works on a message that promotes her credit union over local banks, she carefully analyzes and compares the major products and services offered by her credit union and those of competing banks. When Haniz works on a message to persuade credit union members to join the Hope Walkathon, she learns all she can about participation in this event and how it helps in the fight against breast cancer.
Components of Persuasive Messages
- Gain attention.
- Raise a need.
- Deliver a solution.
- Provide a rationale.
- Show appreciation.
- Give counterpoints (optional).
- Call to action.
Set Up the Message Structure
Most business writing is direct and explicit. It is direct in that you begin with a main idea or argument and then provide the supporting reasons. It is explicit in that nothing is implied; statements contain full and unambiguous meaning. When you write directly and explicitly, you help your readers understand your message and you show respect for their time.
Compared to other business messages, persuasive messages are somewhat more indirect and implicit. They are sometimes indirect in that they provide the rationale for a request before making the specific request. They are sometimes implicit in that the request or some of the rationale for the request may be implied. In other words, sometimes the reader needs to read between the lines to grasp the entire meaning. Implicit statements politely ask people to do or think differently. Also, explicitly stating some types of benefits is considered poor form—for example, matters of financial or career gain in internal persuasive requests.14
The first task of most persuasive messages is to gain the attention of your readers. You can do this in a variety of ways, including asking a rhetorical question, providing a compelling or interesting fact, revealing a compelling statistic, issuing a challenge, or posting a testimonial.15 For internal persuasive messages, the primary means of gaining attention is demonstrating a business need—a gap between what is and what could be.16 You generally have more flexibility in external persuasive messages as you choose your attention-getters. See Table 9.1 for examples of attention-getters Haniz might use for some of her communication tasks.
Table 9.1 Effective Attention-Getters
Type of Attention-GetterExampleRhetorical questionDid you know that average credit union members save $400 per year compared to bank customers?Intriguing statisticIn the past five years, we’ve lost over 200 members—over 10 percent of our membership.Compelling and unusual fact/sYou’ve probably heard car dealers boast about their near-zero percent interest rates—but there’s a catch! By financing with car dealers, you give up your opportunity to receive manufacturer rebates and your power to negotiate on price.ChallengePlease join our team in this year’s Hope Walkathon in the fight against breast cancer.Testimonial“I never knew I could have so much negotiating power with a preapproved loan. By getting my car loan through Better Horizons, I negotiated a great deal with the car dealer. This is the way to buy cars!”Need, Solution, and Rationale
In the body of your message, your first task is to tie your product, service, or idea to the needs of your readers. The best way to reduce the resistance your reader may have is to show that your message meets your raders’ needs. Once you’ve stated the need, you may describe your solution, which is a recommended product, service, or idea. Many readers will remain skeptical unless you provide convincing support. So, you will need to provide a strong rationale, meaning solid reasons why your product, service, or idea really benefits them. After all, you are more than likely attempting to influence skeptics.17
As you structure your message, consider how direct you should be. If your audience members are strongly and emotionally resistant to your solution, consider a more indirect approach so they warm up to your ideas before you suggest a solution. To make your message less direct, provide the rationale before the solution.
At some point in the body of the message, you should validate your readers by showing appreciation for their views and preferences.Validation implies that you recognize and appreciate others’ needs, wants, ideas, and preferences as legitimate and reasonable. By validating your readers, you show respect for them and demonstrate a balanced perspective.18
Traditionally, communicators overcame objections by providing counterpoints to any of the audience members’ objections. In other words, they showed how their own ideas, products, or services were superior to the competing ideas, products, or services the audience favored.
Overcoming objections with counterpoints, however, is risky in the post-trust era. This approach may unnecessarily carry a me-versus-you tone and delegitimize the readers’ concerns. Michael Maslansky, in his research about emerging trends in sales messages in the PTE, states that validation is “using words to let people know that their concerns are valid,” and that it is the “polar opposite of overcoming objections.”19 He says the “new sales mantra [is to] agree with objections.”20 This perhaps ironic approach shows respect and balance because you validate the potential customer’s feelings and ideas. When you validate your readers, they are more likely to accept the merits of your persuasive message.
Thus, consider carefully whether to include counterpoints to your readers’ objections. When you know people well and believe that you will not create a me-versus-you adversarial stance, tactfully state how your ideas, products, and services outperform those of your readers.
Skilled business communicators understand that building support for their ideas takes time. Especially for persuasion within companies, you will generally use a mix of communication channels. Rarely will your ideas be accepted and enacted with one written message. However, one written message can make a powerful statement and open avenues of communication that lead to acceptance and adoption of your ideas.
You conclude persuasive messages with a call to action, which asks your readers to take a specific step toward the purchase of a product or service or acceptance of an idea. However, a call to action should not be a hard sell; pressuring others is increasingly ineffective in the PTE.21 In external persuasive messages, the call to action is typically a specific and explicit step. In internal persuasive messages, the call to action is sometimes explicit and sometimes implicit. It is more likely to be implicit for controversial change ideas and when corresponding with superiors who have ultimate decision-making authority.
Guidelines for Tone for Persuasive Messages
- Apply the personal touch.
- Use action-oriented, lively language.
- Write with confidence.
- Offer choice.
- Show positivity.
Getting the Tone and Style Right for Persuasive Messages
LO9.3. Explain how the tone and style of persuasive messages impact their influence.
The tone for persuasive messages should be confident and positive, yet at the same time avoid exaggeration or hype. This is tricky! You will no doubt need to make some trade-offs. The more confident and positive you make your message, the more you risk being perceived as pushy or exaggerated. As you reduce confidence and positivity, you risk your product, service, or idea being perceived as weak or unexciting. One benefit of asking colleagues to read your persuasive message before you send it is they can help you decide if you have achieved the right level of confidence and positivity without sacrificing believability.
The writing style of your message should be action-oriented and lively. But again, you risk being perceived as unbelievable or overly enthusiastic if you overdo the language. However, you risk being perceived as dull or unexceptional if you don’t use engaging, lively language. Proofreading by yourself and with the help of colleagues will help you get the right writing style to set your message apart.
Apply the Personal Touch
Recently, a number of competing developers delivered presentations to a property owner, each hoping to persuade him to sell them 4,000 acres of much-sought-after property. The presentations were nearly identical, so the property owner was unsure how to choose the best developer. A few days later, the property owner received a handwritten thank-you note from one candidate. The property owner immediately awarded the deal to that developer because he had taken the time to write a message of appreciation.22
Often, your competitors are nearly identical to you. Your colleagues and customers will be more easily persuaded when you show interest in them personally, speak to them in personal terms, understand their specific needs, and demonstrate that you are seeking benefits for them. Personalizing your messages is not easy, though, as Michael Maslansky points out:
For all of us, selling ideas or products or ourselves begins with a need to talk about something that we have and the audience should need, want, or agree with. The problem is that too often, we focus on the first part—what we want to sell, and too little on the second—why they want to buy … and yet, our audience demands increasingly that messages, products, and services speak directly to them.23
Creating messages that speak directly to customers and colleagues requires that you use language that helps your customers and colleagues feel the product, service, or idea is just for them.24
One of the primary strategies you can use to personalize persuasive messages is your selection of voice—either you-voice, we-voice, I-voice, or impersonal voice (as introduced in Chapter 2). Table 9.2 offers guidance on choosing the appropriate voice. Generally, you-voice is more effective in external persuasive messages to customers and clients because it emphasizes the benefits they receive from your products and services. From the customer’s perspective, the you-voice shows them that they are the center of attention.
Table 9.2 Voice in Persuasive Messages
VoiceAppropriate CasesCautionsExamplesYou-voiceUse in external persuasive messages to emphasize reader benefits.Presumptuousness—assuming you know what is good for someone elseWhen you take out an auto loan, you get a variety of resources to help you in your car shopping, including a free copy of a Kelly Blue Book, access to free Carfax reports, Mechanical Breakdown Insurance (MBI), and Guaranteed Auto Protection (GAP). In this example, you-voice helps show direct benefits to the customers. Overuse across an entire message, however, may come across as presumptuous, overbearing, or exaggerated.We-voiceUse in internal persuasive messages to emphasize shared work goals.Presumptuousness—assuming you share common beliefs, ideas, or understanding with your colleaguesAt Better Horizons, we’ve instilled a personal touch into every aspect of our business. We’ve reinforced this culture with face-to-face services. Our tellers welcome members by name. When members come into the credit union, they know we care about them as people, not just as customers. The warm, friendly, genuine, and personal approach we take to serving our members is why I’m so proud to work here. In this passage, we-voice instills a sense of shared values, priorities, and goals. We-voice can instill a strong sense of teamwork. When audience members have different perspectives, however, they may resent that you are stating agreement where it does not exist.I-voiceUse in all persuasive messages sparingly.Overuse implies self-centerednessAfter examining the results of other credit unions, I am convinced that these tools can build emotional connections and loyalty with our members. In this example, I-voice is used to show a personal opinion and shows respect for audience members who are not yet fully persuaded. Frequent use of I-voice across an entire message, however, may come across as emphasizing your interests rather than those of the audience.Impersonal voiceUse in persuasive messages to emphasize objectivity and neutrality.Overuse may depersonalize the messageThe basic difference between credit unions and banks is that credit union members own and control their credit unions whereas bank account holders have no stake or control in their financial institutions. In this example, impersonal voice helps show objectivity. An entire persuasive message in impersonal voice, however, may fail to connect on a personal level with the audience.
Writing in the you-voice to customers is more than just a stylistic choice. It forces you to consciously consider the readers’ needs and wants. It forces you to personalize the message for them. By contrast, the we-voice in external messages can focus too much attention on your company and de-emphasize benefits to the customer. Notice the difference in overall tone in the two messages in Figures 9.4and 9.5 (pp. 255–256). In the less-effective example, the you-voice is hardly used at all compared to the dominating we-voice. In the more-effective example, the you-voice takes center stage over the we-voice. The extensive use of you-voice in the more-effective message sends a strong meta message: This message is about you.
Another method of personalizing a message is to
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Due WED February 1, 2017 3:00pm eastern time. Must be authentic.
At least 200 words for each question and two APA academy sources for each questions. Make sure you provide ideas are nearly always important and provide one or more major insights as well as providing a fruitful direction for the lesson. Arguments are well substantiated and persuasively presented. USE YOUR OWN WORDS
Notes Question 1
OERs (Required Readings)
· Hazard, Jr. J.C. (1995). Yale Law School. Law, Morals, and Ethics. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3322&context=fss_papers.
· Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Ethic. Retrieved from: http:// Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Moral. Retrieved from: http:// Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Law. Retrieved from: http://
· SAGE Knowledge. (n.d.). Cyberlaw. Retrieved from: http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/nationalsecurity/n147.xml
· Bureau of International Information Programs. United States Department of State. (2004). Outline of the U.S. Legal System. Retrieved from: http:// American Bar Association (n.d.). Jurisdiction in Cyberspace. Retrieved from: http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/jurisdiction-in-cyberspace.html.
· Wikipedia (n.d.). Personal jurisdiction in Internet cases in the United States. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_jurisdiction_in_Internet_cases_in_the_United_States.
OERs (Recommended Readings)
· Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3rd Edition. Solomon. Normative Ethical Theories. https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/190519-M_013959-01-2168/Session%201/Week1%20Solomon.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=8kxXJAVlNpYCMxBRYPS8Sxgdo&ou=190519.
· Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3rd Edition. Slote. Ethics. Retrieved from: https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/190519-M_013959-01-2168/Session%201/Week1%20Slote.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=8kxXJAVlNpYCMxBRYPS8Sxgdo&ou=190519.
1.Based upon your own life experiences and the assigned readings for this week, do you think the views on ethics and morality are separate and independent of each other? Also, in your opinion, what is the relationship between ethics and the law? Provide examples or cases in cyberspace that illustrates the relationship between laws, ethics, and morals.
Notes for question 2
Since this security governance was outlined as part of the NIST Security Handbook in 2006, NIST has been putting a lot of emphasis on risk management (risk analysis) as the driving force in the planning and implementing security controls. Risk analysis weighs the benefits of controls against their costs to justify the controls. Risk analysis precedes implementation of any security control. Risk analysis is a top-down approach that is driven by business needs.
Not surprisingly, then, another key aspect of information security governance in the two latest security guidance document is risk management. See Internet 2 Information Security Governance; 2014 and IT Governance Institute; 2006.
Many of you should be familiar with risk analysis. In INFA 610, we explored NIST Risk Analysis methodology in great detail (NIST_RMF; 2014). Feel free to refresh your memory on the subject.
We want to stress a key aspect of governance is compliance to all applicable laws and regulations. often, these laws and regulations are applicable to specific business sectors. These business sectors include healthcare, where HIPAA is the governing standard, financial institutions, where Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act is an important consumer privacy protection act, and providers of education, where FERPA is the governing standard. This document from DHS provides a summary of privacy and security laws and regulations: Privacy & Security; 2010.
(Chief) Information Security Officer (ISO)
All the three documents on Information Security Governance(Information Security Handbook; 2006, IT Governance Institute & Internet 2; 2014) define various important roles including the role of (Chief) Information Security Officer who is day-to-day officer in charge of security of an enterprise. A (C)ISO is a C-level officer of an enterprise and has a dotted or direct reporting relationship with the board.
The (C)ISO performs information security duties as her primary duty.
The (C)ISO’s responsibilities include:
· Development and enforcement of security policies and procedures
· Risk management
· Putting in place security awareness and training programs
· Incident management and forensics
· Business continuity
· Disaster recovery
· Assessing the effectiveness of the information security program, including progress of remedial actions
The CERT division of CMU’s SEI has more formally described the office of the CISO in Allen; 2015. The figure below reproduced from this document nicely summarizes the key functions of the CISO’s organization:
In addition to these functions specified, this document provides a structure of the CISO organization. Keep in mind the positions and the sub-organizations suggested can be virtual to fit your organization size and budget.
A key component of governance is policies.Policies are the primary instrument by management to effect desired behavior with respect to information and information systems in an enterprise. Security policies focus primarily on human behavior to create an environment to minimize the security risks associated with using information systems. Policy is the most important non-technology component of computer security providing the basis for all security. Policy defines the who, what, where, and when of security, including processes and procedures. Typically, policies are negotiated between the people knowledgeable in security and the business unit owners. Good policies build on specific business objectives; they support sound business practice and mitigate risk.
NIST defines three types of security policies (NIST SP 800-14; 1996):
· Program: to set organizational strategic directions
· Issue-Specific: to address specific areas such as Bring Your Own Device to Work (BYOD)
· System Specific
The first one, at the level of Program or Enterprise is more often known as “the Policy.” It is a high-level senior management statement of purpose and intent of the security posture of an enterprise. It establishes a framework to see that computer security needs of the enterprise are met and continue to be met. It is to inform all relevant parties of the organization security objectives and the overall process to achieve them. It is a “What” document and not a “How” document. It should answer the basic question,: “Who should access what resources?” The policy should also address who is ultimately responsible for the security of the enterprise. The information security policy is the foundation upon which all protection (hardware, software, physical) efforts are built.
Cisco has a similar taxonomy for Policy as that of NIST, but not the same (CISCO: Policy):
· Governing or Comprehensive: It is a high-level what document. defines the who, what, where, and when of security, including processes and procedures. It is issued by senior management such as CISO.
· Technical: Technology-component (e.g., operating system, firewall) and issue-specific (BYOD); policies on password, risk assessment, external-facing web server, email, instance messaging are other examples here.
· End-User: everything an end-user should know about, what they had to comply with and implement, and what the results of noncompliance are.
The best way to learn how to write a policy at different levels is to go through a few examples:
· Governing/Comprehensive Security Policy: High level Information System Security Policy; 2014
· Acceptable Use Policy: SANS AUP; 2006 & ePolicyAUP; 2005
· Technical: Secure communications policies, for example the use of email and instant messaging. ePolicyCommPolicy; 2005
2.What is the purpose of an AUP policy? What is the purpose of a comprehensive policy? What is the purpose of detailed policies on specific technologies and systems. How are these types of policies different? Please explain your answer and support your position with examples and reliable sources.
Notes for question 3
· Warren and Brandeis. (1890). The Right to Privacy. Retrieved from: https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/190519-M_013959-01-2168/Session%203/Warren%20and%20Brandeis_The%20Right%20to%20Privacy.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=LDP2imSs3UtKWHJtNkvxFusZ3&ou=190519
· The Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (n.d.). How to Comply with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule. Retrieved from:https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/190519-M_013959-01-2168/Session%203/FTC%20How%20to%20comply%20coppa.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=LDP2imSs3UtKWHJtNkvxFusZ3&ou=190519.
· Federal Trade Commission (FTC). (n.d.). Privacy and Security. Retrieved from: https:// Privacy Rights Clearing House.(Revised April 2016). Fact Sheet 7: Workplace Privacy and Employee Monitoring. Retrieved from: https://
OERs (Recommended Readings)
· MIT. (2005). Personal Information on the Web. Retrieved from:http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-805-ethics-and-the-law-on-the-electronic-frontier-fall-2005/lecture-notes/6805_lec9.pdf
· Computer Weekly. (2015). DON’T WAIT FOR REGULATION TO PRACTISE DATA ETHICS. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail/detail?sid=e122f22f-45fb-44b3-9084-bdb4df0b9267%40sessionmgr103&vid=0&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=109512801&db=f5h
· Communications of the ACM. (2015). Respecting People and Respecting Privacy. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail/detail?sid=3092d3ee-5bdd-4a32-a371-03b5cc8a2935%40sessionmgr105&vid=0&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=103432034&db=iih
· Online Searcher. (2015). BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail/detail?sid=de14528a-efe8-4f1d-834a-f1eee72837a4%40sessionmgr104&vid=0&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=110916050&db=f5h
· Ghanavati, S. (n.d.). A Requirements Management Framework for Privacy Compliance. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.218.5596&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Before we can truly explore the relationship between security and privacy, we need to define terms. The CIA triad (confidentiality, integrity, availability) provides a foundation for understanding security. But, what is the definition of privacy? Does the U.S. Constitution offer some basics? Privacy is not a right explicitly protected by or mentioned in the Constitution. Perhaps history can offer some clues.
In 1890, two lawyers wrote an article entitled, The Right to Privacy (The Right to Privacy, 1890). Louis Brandeis, one of the authors, later served as a Supreme Court Justice. The article grew from the intrusion of new technology on the privacy of individuals. In this instance, the new technology was the portable camera that made candid photographs possible. Such cameras permitted photographers to intrude on capture “private” moments like a daughter’s wedding.
Many years later, fear of another new technology led to key privacy milestone and improved insights. In the early 1970s, the American public began to fear a future where digital data collection and processing in regional data centers could provide the government too much information about people. This fear led to the production of the Records Computers and the Rights of Citizens Report; 1973 produced for the then Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) in July 1973. This HEW report identified the Fair Information Privacy Principles that have guided privacy law in the U.S. and many other nations. Most recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have endorsed the further developed Fair Information Privacy Practices, generally as follows:
· Individual Participation
· Purpose Specification
· Data Minimization
· Use Limitation
· Data Quality and Integrity
· Accountability and Auditing.
From the Privacy Act of 1974 to the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, these principles provide goals for both government and commercial entities processing personal information.
But, it is not just the collection of personal information that creates problems. Daniel Solove; 2006 has identified four types of activities that threaten privacy:
· Information Collection
· Information Processing
· Information Dissemination
· Invasion, including intrusion and decisional interference.
Technology seems to highlight our imprecise understanding of privacy. So how do we distinguish between privacy and security. Some believe the terms are interchangeable. Not so. Technologies and processes (e.g., encryption, check sum, authorization approval) to achieve confidentiality and integrity of the CIA triad can provide the basis for ensuring privacy. However, what information is private is not the purview of security.
It is important to start with the consumer’s privacy concerns. Online consumers have many privacy concerns, including;
· What information is collected about the individual?
· How collected information is used and for what purpose.
· How collected information is secured, shared, rented, sold, or otherwise disseminated.
Many privacy concerns stem from uncertainty over what’s going on behind the scenes and the lack of published information about data collection and sharing practices. The FTC has been the government agent for protecting the privacy of individuals since the 1970s and the enactment of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). One of the key tools used by the FTC is the enforcement of company privacy policies. Such published policies are agreements between the institution and its consumers. The United States does not have a comprehensive privacy approach like European and some other nations. Instead Congress has addressed privacy needs in key functional areas. In addition to the FCRA, two key laws are the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) that deal with health care and financial information, respectively. Congress also passed the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974. Another more recent, important law is the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) of 1998.
How about privacy rights as an employee? Whether you work in a commercial or government setting, a general rule applies within the workplace: employees should have no expectation of privacy with respect to their communications or activities while using employer resources. This often causes discomfort, because there is a culturally derived, almost instinctive perception (at least in the United States and other democratic societies) that all individuals have a right to privacy. But, it is important for security professionals to be aware that employers have the right (and in some cases the obligation) to protect any information stored, transmitted, or communicated within the employer’s environment. This is the basis for the increasingly common practice of monitoring (or at least explicitly stating the right to monitor) email, network traffic, voice, wireless, and other communications. See the OER entitled, “Fact Sheet 7: Workplace Privacy and Employee Monitoring” for more details. ( Fact Sheet 7; 2016 )
Note for question 4
· Explain copyright law.
· Explain trademark law.
· Explain patent law.
· Explain trade secret law.
· Explain why these IP Rights Laws, especially Copyright Laws, are being revisited in view of the Internet and eCommerce.
OERs (Required Readings)
· Electronic Frontier Foundation. (n.d.)Fair Use and Intellectual Property: Defending the Balance. Retrieved from: https:// Cohen, J. (2009). Encyclopedia of Management. Intellectual Property Rights. Retrieved from: http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ps/retrieve.do?sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&userGroupName=umd_umuc&tabID=T003&searchId=R2&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=3&contentSet=GALE|CX3273100134&&docId=GALE|CX3273100134&docType=GALE.
· Baker, D.J. (2003). Gale. Intellectual Property Online. Retrieved from: http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ps/retrieve.do?sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL&userGroupName=umd_umuc&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=4&contentSet=GALE|CX3405000048&docId=GALE|CX3405000048&docType=GALE&authCount=1&u=umd_umuc.
· Ames, A.C. (2016). Salem Press Encyclopedia. Intellectual property rights overview. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/eds/detail/detail?sid=a46d7535-4b4b-4e0c-80ac-2006637d76a8%40sessionmgr4008&vid=0&hid=4108&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=89158226&db=ers.
· Mawdsley, R.D. (n.d.). SAGE Knowledge. Plagiarism. Retrieved from: http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/educationlaw/n295.xml.
· Bollier, D. (2011). Intellectual property in the digital age.In Ben Walmsley (ed.), Key Issues in the Arts and Entertainment Industry. Oxford, England: Goodfellows Publishers Ltd. Retrieved from: http://bollier.org/sites/default/files/IP%20in%20Digital%20Age%20chapter-Bollier.pdf.
OERs (Recommended Readings)
· Duke University. (2015). INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: LAW & THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. Retrieved from: http://web.law.duke.edu/cspd/pdf/IPCasebook2015.pdf
Intellectual property (IP) refers to “Ideas, including words, images, performances, and sounds, that belong to their creator, or another to whom the rights were subsequently sold or given. Intellectual property has the same legal protections as physical property (a car, for example) and cannot be taken or used without permission (usually by paying the owner).” (See Ames; 2016.) Digitization as complicated the protection of IP as theft can occur unapproved copying is both cheap and easy. Likewise, the internet and the “sharing economy” have changed the landscape of the media industry. The Bollier; 2011 article provides some historical background and highlights some of the challenges of managing digital rights. Please note that his use of the term, “fair dealing” is equivalent to “fair use” in the United States.
Intellectual Property rights include patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Cohen (Cohen; 2009) states, “Patents protect an inventor’s right to exclude others from making, manufacturing, using, or selling an inventor’s invention. Trademarks protect words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Copyrights protect original artistic, musical, and literary works, including software. Intellectual property rights can also encompass state trade secrets laws, which protect a company’s proprietary and confidential information, such as methods of manufacturing, customer lists, supplier information, and the materials used during the manufacturing process.”
The challenge of IP law is to balance the creator/owner’s right to compensation against the public’s need to benefit from a creation. The Electronic Frontier Foundation states, “Copyrights and patents, for example, are supposed to encourage authors and inventors to create new things by helping them receive some compensation for that investment. At the same time, copyright and patent law put limits on authors’ and inventors’ rights, such as fair use (for copyright) and limited terms of protection (for patents), to help make sure that IP rights don’t unfairly inhibit new creativity and Trademarks work a little differently—they are supposed to protect consumers by encouraging sellers of goods and services to stand by their brand, so consumers will know what they are buying. But these rights, too, are balanced by fair use and other limits.” ( IP rights) The Recommended Readings provide definitions of each of the IP protections.
The Internet facilitates sharing knowledge, information, art, and communication. The legal system applies many restrictions on the use, and misuse, of content from the Internet. But no single entity governs the Internet. Financial incentives threaten the protection of IP. There are myriad examples of how misuse of Intellectual Property has caused harm to businesses and individuals, with an emphasis on the use of the Internet. Similar is the issue of plagiarism, where the greatest impact is in education at all levels. Students of all ages are opting to copy the works of others without citation, without developing the critical thinking and problem solving skills needed for real success (Mawdsley).
In today’s global competitiveness and crime environment, organized gangs from ‘non-friendly’ countries are known to target three specific types of crimes via the Internet; identity theft, extortion, and stolen intellectual property. Due to the broad scope of intellectual property, the main targets are pirated software, video and music. Unfortunately, the pirated copies are relatively easy to find for sale on the Internet, with the traffickers setting up the websites offshore in a country where eCommerce and financial transactions fall under the radar of law enforcement.
The best defenses to protect IP accessible via the Internet include technical tools that will “time out” downloading, so that a song or video cannot completely be copied, or to encrypt data, making it worthless and/or useless. There have been cases in recent years, including the shutdown of the Napster peer-to-peer music sharing site in 2001, and the monetary penalty against the New York Times, when it was proven that they had used the Lexis-Nexis database without paying for access. Baker (Baker; 2003) notes that, in addition to protecting IP, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, passed in 1998, made it a crime to develop, share or sell technology that circumvents copy-protection technology. As a result, one academic was threatened with prosecution if he even published research about music protection software.
4. Read the following document on Cybersquatting and answer the questions that follow:
“Cybersquatting.” Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce. Ed. Jane A. Malonis. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2002. 173-174. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 7 Sept. 2016.
Using ethical and legal frameworks discussed in this course so far, analyze cybersquatting from an ethical and legal perspective. Should businesses protect their domain names or brands via computer code? Should law protect businesses that are exploited by cybersquatting? Use examples to support your positions.
Notes for question 5
OERs (Required Readings)
· Gehring, R. (2008). Indicare.Trusted computing for digital rights management. Retrieved from: http:// Bantin, P.C. (1998). University of Wisconsin. Strategies for Managing Electronic Records: a New Archival Paradigm? An Affirmation of our Archival Traditions?Retrieved from: https://minds.wisconsin.edu/bitstream/handle/1793/45860/MA23_1_3.pdf?sequence=3.
· Rosch, J.T. (2007). Federal Trade Commission (FTC). A Different Perspective on DRM. Retrieved from: https:// Scarfone, K. (2007). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Guide to Storage Encryption Technologies for End User Devices. Retrieved from: http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-111.pdf.
· NIST (2011). Jansen, W. & Grance, T. Guidelines on Security and Privacy in Public Cloud Computing. NIST SP 800-14. Retrieved from: http://docs.ismgcorp.com/files/external/Draft-SP-800-144_cloud-computing.pdf.
· Lyon, G.E. (2002). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A Quick-Reference List of Organizations and Standards for Digital Rights Management. Retrieved from: http://xml.coverpages.org/Lyon-NIST241assmOct9.pdf.
· Coyle, K. (2003). The Technology of Rights: Digital Rights Management. Retrieved from: http:// , http:// , & http:// (Recommended Readings)
· Helberger, N. (2004). Digital Rights Management and Consumer Acceptability. Retrieved from: http:// Sage Reference. (2009). Electronic Clinical Records. Retrieved from: http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/download/healthservices/n123.pdf
The worldwide expansion of the Internet and the emergence of mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, tablets) have considerably expanded online commerce. E-commerce, or electronic commerce, is defined as online buying and/or selling of products or services via desktop, cell phone, tablet or other online devices. Currently, there are more than 1 billion online buyers and this number is projected to continuously grow (Statista). In 2016, the revenue from digital media content (ebooks, digital videos, and digital documents) in the USA amounted to over $33 billion and the market’s largest segment consists of “video games” with a market volume of over $11 billion in 2016 (Statista_2).
Online retailers of digital content have a vested interest to protect their digital content from unauthorized downloads, copying, forwarding, distribution, and usage beyond the authorized number of reads or time limits. To stay in business, their content should be available for download, browsing, etc. to authorized users almost 24×7. In order to meet such a challenge, online enterprises can leverage the traditional confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) triad solutions, Digital Rights Management (DRM) software, as well as an existing legal framework, which consists of the Digital Millennia Copyright Act (DMCA) and other Intellectual Property (IP) laws and treaties. The DMCA and IP rights were discussed in the previous session, Session 4.
We have examined in detail in earlier INFA courses for various controls to achieve desired CIA goals. Cryptography solutions, the main technical solutions for confidentiality and integrity (and authentication), were examined in INFA 640. Access control (who can access what resources in what way) was examined in detail in INFA 610. Availability is normally achieved through a combination of IT technologies, specifically replicated databases and servers and fast recovery and business continuity techniques, in case there is a major outage, and security controls to minimize denial of service attacks.
As stated by Gehring; 2008, “Digital Rights Management (DRM) is about the usage rights in digital content. Digital content can be text, graphics, images, audio, video or software in digital format. Mainly, DRM systems are applied to media products.” DRM is particularly important when dealing with copyrighted material or any information publicly available. For instance, piracy of music and movies has been an issue for many years, where individuals ‘steal’ intellectual property and circumvent rights of ownership. See ( Coyle; 2003 ) for more on DRM, i.e, why we need DRM and what is DRM.
Due to the magnitude of digital media infringement, numerous standards continue to evolve i for protecting digital media. Among them, although a bit outdated, one should mention the guide that addresses the storage encryption published by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST SP800-111; Scarfone; 2007) and DRM (NIST SP 500-241, Lyon; 2002). In addition to NIST, the Federal Trade Commission published a synopsis from a conference they help on copyrights and DRM technologies (Rosch; 2007).
Cloud Computing and Storage presents another challenge for online retailers in protecting customer information and privacy. Where data is processed and stored influences its protections and the laws involved. There are economic and management arguments for the use of the Cloud and off-site repositories. Efficiency is a primary argument for utilizing the Cloud for processing and operational system storage. The advantages of using an off-site provider for infrequently accessed or archived records are:
· Mission and Competency: If data storage is not a core competency of an organization, it is better to store them with a provider where authenticity is maintained.
· Ability to Monitor Compliance: very few organizations have on staff personnel trained in the auditing procedures associated with archived records.
· Cost to Monitor Compliance: it is more cost effective to store archived records with providers who have the resources to manage these records and meet compliancy regulations.
· Changes in the Work Environment: staffing changes within an organization put data and records at risk.
· Vested Interests: i
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Assignment #4: Health care case analysis (25 Points)
HMGT 372 6380 Legal and Ethical Issues in Health Care (2158)
The final project for this course is an analysis of the legal and or ethical issues involved in the below health care scenario. See questions to be answered at end of this factual scenario below. I have also provided, after the formatting requirements for the paper, two articles that will aid you in your analyzing the scenario and writing your paper.
The two articles to base the analysis of your paper are entitled:
Clinical Ethics Issues and Discussion and
A Framework for Thinking Ethically
This is the final paper for the class and must be double spaced and be approximately 4-6 pages in 12 point New Times Roman font. Include a cover page [not counted as a page] which should have student name and title of your paper. See more formatting requirements later in these paper instructions.
NOTE: For this paper it is unnecessary to do any research beyond the two articles I furnished with this assignment. Both are after the specific paper requirements. You may use all the articles in the class but you will be wasting your time to do internet research.
A 72 year old woman was admitted to the Neurological Intensive Care Unit following a cerebral hemorrhage which left her with severe brain damage and ventilator dependent. One year before this event, the patient and her husband had drawn up “living wills” with an attorney. She was diagnosed by her treating physician as being in a permanent unconscious condition. The patient’s living will specified that the patient did not want ventilator support or other artificial life support in the event of a permanent unconscious condition or terminal condition.
The patient’s husband is her legal next of kin and the person with surrogate decision-making authority. When the living will was discussed with him, he insisted that the patient had not intended for the document to be used in a situation like the present one. Further discussion with him revealed that he understood that the patient would not be able to recover any meaningful brain function but he argued that the living will did not apply because her condition was not imminently terminal. He further indicated that he did not consider his wife to be in a permanent unconscious condition. The immediate family members (the couple’s adult children) disagreed with their father’s refusal to withdraw life support.
The treatment team allowed a week to pass to allow the husband more time to be supported in his grief and to appreciate the gravity of his wife’s situation. Nevertheless, at the end of this time, the husband was unwilling to authorize withdrawal of life support measures consistent with the patient’s wishes as expressed in her living will. End of scenario.
Your paper should have 3 major sections. Each is numbered 1, 2 and 3. Questions to be discussed based on the facts above. You must weave into your discussion the relevant facts from above scenario to support your discussion in discussion areas 2 and 3 below.And for discussion area 3 you must weave into your discussion the ethics philosophy you pick for each issue from the article A Framework for Thinking Ethically.
Outline: Must use the bolded and underlined headings from the outline below in your paper and the paper must be in narrative form not outline or bullet format. 10% penalty deducted from paper if underlined headings not used in your paper.
There should be three discussion parts to the paper and they are identified as 1, 2, 3 below.
Must use each Bolded headings below in the paper or suffer 10% penalty.
1. Three Legal/Ethical Issues. Just list the three most important legal/ethics issues in this scenario that you will discuss. Pay particular attention to the article I furnished with this assignment. These must be three separate and distinct issues. No explanation needed, just state them a, b and c.
2. Discussion of Three Legal/Ethical Issues. Discuss the three most important ethical/legal issues you listed above. Must use the relevant facts in the scenario to support your discussion of the legal/ethical issues.
Headings will be:
Legal/Ethical issue 1 [state the issue] then discussion
Legal/Ethical issue 2 [state the issue] then discussion
Legal/Ethical issue 3 [state the issue] then discussion
For each legal/ethical issue above discuss
a. Why each is a legal /ethical issue?
b. Discuss each issue in the context of the scenario facts and
c. Define the concepts you use
3. How I would Handle Each Issue. First, in this section and for each issue, as a health care provider, how would you handle each of the three issues discussed above and why? Must use the relevant facts in the scenario to support your positions. Secondly for each issue, using the article in week 1 Discussion 2 entitled “A Framework of Thinking Ethically” fully discuss the specific ethics philosophy that would epitomize your handling of each issue. Fully define the specific ethics philosophy used and weave the ethics philosophy into your discussion. See article below entitled A Framework for Thinking Ethically.
Must use each Bolded headings below. Headings will be:
Handling of Legal/ethical issue #1 [then discussion]
Handling of Legal/ethical issue #2 [then discussion]
Handling of Legal/ethical issue #3 [then discussion]
End of paper outline.
This is an independent paper and you are on the honor system not to discuss or consult with any students or other individuals about this paper. Just so you know, all you need to read to support your paper are the two articles I have furnished with this assignment and information in the class.
All you need to read to analyze the questions for this paper are the two articles below entitled:
Clinical Ethics Issues and Discussion and
A Framework for Thinking Ethically
The paper must be:
- Paper must be in narrative format not outline or bullets.
- Double spaced and be 4-6 pages in 12 point New Times Roman font. [No deduction if paper exceeds a page or so. Thus 3 and half page paper will be penalized.]
- Include a cover page [not counted as a page] which should have student name and title of your paper [Provide a short name for the legal responsibility the specific health care organization has for one type of patient right in a specific setting
- A the end of the paper a list of references [not counted as a page]
- Be prepared using word-processing software and saved with a .doc, .docx, or .rtf extension. No pdf.
- Be uploaded to your Assignments Folder by 11:59 p.m. eastern time on the due date.
- Late penalties: Paper is due by due date but if there occurs is an extraordinary event beyond your control, then you need to contact me as to the reason and then we can discuss a new due date if I agree with your excuse. In every case of an extension you will be penalized 11% [no chance for an A on the paper] for the first day late and an additional .5 pt. for each day thereafter, no matter the excuse deducted from the 25pts paper is worth.
- Footnote example below
- In the body of the paper example:(Healthcare Financial Management Association (U.S.), Ernst, & Young, 2000).At the end of the paper example:ReferencesHealthcare Financial Management Association (U.S.), Ernst, & Young. (2000). Health care system reform: A provider perspective : survey results. Westchester, Ill.: Healthcare Financial Management Association.
- The paper is to be posted in Assignment #4 drop box.
Grading rubric for assignment is with assignment in Assignments area of class.
Background articles to support the issues you will discuss in the paper.
Article One of Two
Clinical Ethics Issues and Discussion
Relationships: I. clinical ethics, law & risk management
- Definitions and sources of authority
In the course of practicing medicine, a range of issues may arise that lead to consultation with a medical ethicist, a lawyer, and/or a risk manager. The following discussion will outline key distinctions between these roles.
- Clinical ethics may be defined as: a discipline or methodology for considering the ethical implications of medical technologies, policies, and treatments, with special attention to determining what ought to be done (or not done) in the delivery of health care.
- Law may be defined as: established and enforceable social rules for conduct or non-conduct; a violation of a legal standard may create criminal or civil liability.
- Risk Management may be defined as: a method of reducing risk of liability through institutional policies/practices.
Many health care facilities have in-house or on-call trained ethicists to assist health care practitioners, caregivers and patients with difficult issues arising in medical care, and some facilities have formally constituted institutional ethics committees. In the hospital setting, this ethics consultation or review process dates back to at least 1992 with the formulation of accreditation requirements that mandated that hospitals establish a “mechanism” to consider clinical ethics issues.
Ethics has been described as beginning where the law ends. The moral conscience is a precursor to the development of legal rules for social order. Ethics and law thus share the goal of creating and maintaining social good and have a symbiotic relationship as expressed in this quote:
[C]onscience is the guardian in the individual of the rules which the community has evolved for its own preservation. William Somerset Maugham
The role of lawyers and risk managers are closely linked in many health care facilities. Indeed, in some hospitals, the administrator with the title of Risk Manager is an attorney with a clinical background. There are, however, important distinctions between law and risk management. Risk management is guided by legal parameters but has a broader institution-specific mission to reduce liability risks. It is not uncommon for a hospital policy to go beyond the minimum requirements set by a legal standard. When legal and risk management issues arise in the delivery of health care, ethics issues may also exist. Similarly, an issue originally identified as falling within the clinical ethics domain may also raise legal and risk management concerns.
To better understand the significant overlap among these disciplines in the health care setting, consider the sources of authority and expression for each.
Ethical norms may be derived from:
- Institutional policies/practices
- Policies of professional organizations
- Professional standards of care, fiduciary obligations
Note: If a health care facility is also a religious facility, it may adhere to religious tenets. In general, however, clinical ethics is predominantly a secular professional analytic approach to clinical issues and choices.
Law may be derived from:
- Federal and state constitutions (fundamental laws of a nation or state establishing the role of government in relation to the governed)
- Federal and state statutes (laws written or enacted by elected officials in legislative bodies, and in some states, such as Washington and California, laws created by a majority of voters through an initiative process)
- Federal and state regulations (written by government agencies as permitted by statutory delegation, having the force and effect of law consistent with the enabling legislation)
- Federal and state case law (written published opinions of appellate-level courts regarding decisions in individual lawsuits)
- City or town ordinances, when relevant
Risk Management may be derived from law, professional standards and individual institution’s mission and public relations strategies and is expressed through institutional policies and practices.
- Conceptual Models
Another way to consider the relationship among the three disciplines is through conceptual models:
- Orientation to law for non-lawyers
- Potential legal actions against health care providers
There are two primary types of potential civil actions against health care providers for injuries resulting from health care: (1) lack of informed consent, and (2) violation of the standard of care. Medical treatment and malpractice laws are specific to each state.
- Informed Consent. Before a health care provider delivers care, ethical and legal standards require that the patient provide informed consent. If the patient cannot provide informed consent, then, for most treatments, a legally authorized surrogate decision-maker may do so. In an emergency situation when the patient is not legally competent to give informed consent and no surrogate decision-maker is readily available, the law implies consent on behalf of the patient, assuming that the patient would consent to treatment if he or she were capable of doing so.
Information that must be conveyed to and consented to by the patient includes: the treatment’s nature and character and anticipated results, alternative treatments (including non-treatment), and the potential risks and benefits of treatment and alternatives. The information must be presented in a form that the patient can comprehend (i.e., in a language and at a level which the patient can understand) and that the consent must be voluntary given. An injured patient may bring an informed consent action against a provider who fails to obtain the patient’s informed consent in accordance with state law.
From a clinical ethics perspective, informed consent is a communication process, and should not simply be treated as a required form for the patient’s signature. Similarly, the legal concept of informed consent refers to a state of mind, i.e., understanding the information provided to make an informed choice. Health care facilities and providers use consent forms to document the communication process. From a provider’s perspective, a signed consent form can be valuable evidence the communication occurred and legal protection in defending against a patient’s claim of a lack of informed consent. Initiatives at the federal level (i.e., the Affordable Care Act) and state level (e.g., Revised Code of Washington § 7.70.060) reflect approaches that support shared decision-making and the use of patient decision aids in order to ensure the provision of complete information for medical decision-making.
- Failure to follow standard of care. A patient who is injured during medical treatment may also be able to bring a successful claim against a health care provider if the patient can prove that the injury resulted from the provider’s failure to follow the accepted standard of care. The duty of care generally requires that the provider use reasonably expected knowledge and judgment in the treatment of the patient, and typically would also require the adept use of the facilities at hand and options for treatment. The standard of care emerges from a variety of sources, including professional publications, interactions of professional leaders, presentations and exchanges at professional meetings, and among networks of colleagues. Experts are hired by the litigating parties to assist the court in determining the applicable standard of care.
Many states measure the provider’s actions against a national standard of care (rather than a local one) but with accommodation for practice limitations, such as the reasonable availability of medical facilities, services, equipment and the like. States may also apply different standards to specialists and to general practitioners. As an example of a statutory description of the standard of care, Washington State currently specifies that a health care provider must “exercise that degree of care, skill, and learning expected of a reasonably prudent health care provider at that time in the profession or class to which he belongs, in the State of Washington, acting in the same or similar circumstances.”
III. Common clinical ethics issues: medical decision-making and provider-patient communication
There are a number of common ethical issues that also implicate legal and risk management issues. Briefly discussed below are common issues that concern medical decision-making and provider-patient communication.
If a patient is capable of providing informed consent, then the patient’s choices about treatment, including non-treatment, should be followed. This is an established and enforceable legal standard and also consistent with the ethical principle of respecting the autonomy of the patient. The next two sections (Surrogate decision-making; Advance directives) discuss how this principle is respected from a legal perspective if a patient lacks capacity, temporarily or permanently, to make medical decisions. The third section briefly introduces the issue of provider-patient communication, and highlights a contemporary dilemma raised in decisions regarding the disclosure of medical error to patients.
- Surrogate decision-making
The determination as to whether a patient has the capacity to provide informed consent is generally a professional judgment made and documented by the treating health care provider. The provider can make a determination of temporary or permanent incapacity, and that determination should be linked to a specific decision. The legal term competency (or incompetency) may be used to describe a judicial determination of decision-making capacity. The designation of a specific surrogate decision-maker may either be authorized by court order or is specified in state statutes.
If a court has determined that a patient is incompetent, a health care provider must obtain informed consent from the court-appointed decision-maker. For example, where a guardian has been appointed by the court in a guardianship action, a health care provider would seek the informed consent of the guardian, provided that the relevant court order covers personal or health care decision-making.
If, however, a physician determines that a patient lacks the capacity to provide informed consent, for example, due to dementia or lack of consciousness, or because the patient is a minor and the minor is legally proscribed from consenting, then a legally authorized surrogate decision-maker may be able to provide consent on the patient’s behalf. Most states have specific laws that delineate, in order of priority, who can be a legally authorized surrogate decision-maker for another person. While these laws may vary, they generally assume that legal relatives are the most appropriate surrogate decision-makers. If, however, a patient has previously, while capable of consenting, selected a person to act as her decision-maker and executed a legal document known as a durable power of attorney for health care or health care proxy, then that designated individual should provide informed consent.
In Washington State, a statute specifies the order of priority of authorized decision-makers as follows: guardian, holder of durable power of attorney; spouse or state registered partner; adult children; parents; and adult brothers and sisters. If the patient is a minor, other consent provisions may apply, such as: court authorization for a person with whom the child is in out-of-home placement; the person(s) that the child’s parent(s) have given a signed authorization to provide consent; or, a competent adult who represents that s/he is a relative responsible for the child’s care and signs a sworn declaration stating so. Health care providers are required to make reasonable efforts to locate a person in the highest possible category to provide informed consent. If there are two or more persons in the same category, e.g., adult children, then the medical treatment decision must be unanimous among those persons. A surrogate decision-maker is required to make the choice she believes the patient would have wanted, which may not be the choice the decision-maker would have chosen for herself in the same circumstance. This decision-making standard is known as substituted judgment. If the surrogate is unable to ascertain what the patient would have wanted, then the surrogate may consent to medical treatment or non-treatment based on what is in the patient’s best interest.
Laws on surrogate decision-making are slowly catching up with social changes. Non-married couples (whether heterosexual or same sex) have not traditionally been recognized in state law as legally authorized surrogate decision-makers. This lack of recognition has left providers in a difficult legal position, encouraging them to defer to the decision-making of a distant relative over a spouse-equivalent unless the relative concurs. Washington law, for example, now recognizes spouses and domestic partners registered with the state as having the same priority status.
Parental decision-making and minor children. A parent may not be permitted in certain situations to consent to non-treatment of his or her minor child, particularly where the decision would significantly impact and perhaps result in death if the minor child did not receive treatment. Examples include parents who refuse medical treatment on behalf of their minor children because of the parents’ social or religious views, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses and Christian Scientists. The decision-making standard that generally applies to minor patients in such cases is known as the best interest standard. The substituted judgment standard may not apply because the minor patient never had decision-making capacity and therefore substituted judgment based on the minor’s informed choices is not able to be determined. It is important to note that minors may have greater authority to direct their own care depending on their age, maturity, nature of medical treatment or non-treatment, and may have authority to consent to specific types of treatment. For example, in Washington State, a minor may provide his or her own informed consent for treatment of mental health conditions, sexually transmitted diseases, and birth control, among others. Depending on the specific facts, a health care provider working with the provider’s institutional representatives could potentially legally provide treatment of a minor under implied consent for emergency with documentation of that determination, assume temporary protective custody of the child under child neglect laws, or if the situation is non-urgent, the provider could seek a court order to authorize treatment.
- Advance directives
The term advance directive refers to several different types of legal documents that may be used by a patient while competent to record future wishes in the event the patient lacks decision-making capacity. The choice and meaning of specific advance directive terminology is dependent on state law. Generally, a living will expresses a person’s desires concerning medical treatment in the event of incapacity due to terminal illness or permanent unconsciousness. A durable power of attorney for health care or health care proxy appoints a legal decision- maker for health care decisions in the event of incapacity. An advance health care directive or health care directive may combine the functions of a living will and durable power of attorney for health care into one document in one state, but may be equivalent to a living will in another state. The Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form is a document that is signed by a physician and patient which summarizes the patient’s wishes concerning medical treatment at the end of life, such as resuscitation, antibiotics, other medical interventions and artificial feeding, and translates them into medical orders that follow patients regardless of care setting. It is especially helpful in effectuating a patient’s wishes outside the hospital setting, for example, in a nursing care facility or emergency medical response context. This relatively new approach is available in about a dozen states, although the programs may operate under different names: POST (Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment), MOST (Medical Orders for Scope of Treatment), MOLST (Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment), and COLST (Clinician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment). The simple one page treatment orders follow patients regardless of care setting. Thus it differs from an advance directive because it is written up by the clinician in consultation with the patient and is a portable, actionable medical order. The POLST form is intended to complement other forms of advance directives. For example, Washington State recognizes the following types of advance directives: the health care directive (living will), the durable power of attorney for health care, and the POLST form. Washington also recognizes another legal document known as a mental health advance directive, which can be prepared by individuals with mental illness who fluctuate between capacity and incapacity for use during times when they are incapacitated.
State laws may also differ on the conditions that can be covered by an individual in an advance directive, the procedural requirements to ensure that the document is effective (such as the number of required witnesses) and the conditions under which it can be implemented (such as invalidity during pregnancy).
Advance directives can be very helpful in choosing appropriate treatment based upon the patient’s expressed wishes. There are situations, however, in which the advance directive’s veracity is questioned or in which a legally authorized surrogate believes the advance directive does not apply to the particular care decision at issue. Such conflicts implicate clinical ethics, law and risk management.
- Provider-patient communications: disclosing medical error
Honest communication to patients by health care providers is an ethical imperative. Excellent communication eliminates or reduces the likelihood of misunderstandings and conflict in the health care setting, and also may affect the likelihood that a patient will sue.
One of the more contentious issues that has arisen in the context of communication is whether providers should disclose medical errors to patients, and if so, how and when to do so. Disclosure of medical error creates a potential conflict among clinical ethics, law and risk management. Despite a professional ethical commitment to honest communication, providers cite a fear of litigation as a reason for non-disclosure. Specifically, the fear is that those statements will stimulate malpractice lawsuits or otherwise be used in support of a claim against the provider. An increase in malpractice claims could then negatively affect the provider’s claims history and malpractice insurance coverage.
There is some evidence in closed systems (one institution, one state with one malpractice insurer) that an apology coupled with disclosure and prompt payment may decrease either the likelihood or amount of legal claim. In addition, a number of state legislatures have recently acted to protect provider apologies, or provider apologies coupled with disclosures, from being used by a patient as evidence of a provider’s liability in any ensuing malpractice litigation. It is currently too early to know whether these legal protections will have any impact on the size or frequency of medical malpractice claims. For this reason and others, it is advisable to involve risk management and legal counsel in decision-making regarding error disclosure.
Article Two of Two
A Framework for Thinking Ethically
This document is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically. We all have an image of our better selves-of how we are when we act ethically or are “at our best.” We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical government, or an ethical society should be. Ethics really has to do with all these levels-acting ethically as individuals, creating ethical organizations and governments, and making our society as a whole ethical in the way it treats everyone.
What is Ethics?
Simply stated, ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals, and so on.
It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT:
- • Ethics is not the same as feelings. Feelings provide important information for our ethical choices. Some people have highly developed habits that make them feel bad when they do something wrong, but many people feel good even though they are doing something wrong. And often our feelings will tell us it is uncomfortable to do the right thing if it is hard.
- • Ethics is not religion. Many people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone. Most religions do advocate high ethical standards but sometimes do not address all the types of problems we face.
- • Ethics is not following the law. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical. Law can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have made it. Law can be a function of power alone and designed to serve the interests of narrow groups. Law may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems.
- • Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms. Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns (as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War). “When in Rome, do as the Romans do” is not a satisfactory ethical standard.
- • Ethics is not science. Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do. Science may provide an explanation for what humans are like. But ethics provides reasons for how humans ought to act. And just because something is scientifically or technologically possible, it may not be ethical to do it.
Why Identifying Ethical Standards is Hard
There are two fundamental problems in identifying the ethical standards we are to follow: 1. On what do we base our ethical standards?2. How do those standards get applied to specific situations we face?
If our ethics are not based on feelings, religion, law, accepted social practice, or science, what are they based on? Many philosophers and ethicists have helped us answer this critical question. They have suggested at least five different sources of ethical standards we should use.
Five Sources of Ethical Standards
The Utilitarian ApproachSome ethicists emphasize that the ethical action is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm. The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected-customers, employees, shareholders, the community, and the environment. Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done.
The Rights ApproachOther philosophers and ethicists suggest that the ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. This approach starts from the belief t
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THE ASSIGNMENTS THAT ARE NEEDED TO DO ASSIGNMENT 5; IS UNDER THE INSTRUCTIONS
Assignment 5: Business Plan – Final
Due Week 10 and worth 150 points
This assignment consists of two (2) sections: your final business plan and your business plan financials. Note: You must submit both sections as separate files for the completion of this assignment.
You have completed all of the necessary sections of your business plan and will now create a final draft. Use any / all feedback you have received to polish your plan to the point that you could confidently show it to investors and potential partners or customers.
Refer to the Outline of a Business Plan, beginning on p. 399 of the course text. (Click here for help accessing a specific page number in your eBook.) Not all businesses will include all of these components in this order, but use the outline as a guide. Specifically your plan will not require the Development, Milestones, and Exit Plan section of the business plan.
Section 1: Business Plan (MS Word or equivalent)
Construct a ten to thirty (10-30) page business plan. Note: Twenty (20) pages are sufficient for most businesses.
- Write a one to three (1–3) page executive summary for your business plan, in which you justify:
- A clear and concise business concept.
- A thoroughly planned business concept.
- A capable management structure.
- A clear-cut market need.
- Significant competitive advantages for your business.
- Realistic financial projections.
- That investors have an excellent chance to make money.
- A realistic and developed exit plan.
Note: Read Chapters 4 and 18 of the course text: Successful Business Plan . Use the plan preparation worksheets on pp. 58–61 and the sample executive summaries on pp. 62–66 to help guide you, choose to write either a synopsis summary or a narrative summary, and include highlights from the each section of your business plan.
- Combine all of the sections stated below and revise your initial business plan draft, which you submitted in Week 8, based on feedback you have received.
- Executive Summary
- Company Description (Assignment 1)
- Industry Analysis and Trends ( Assignment 1 )
- Target Market ( Assignment 2 )
- Competition ( Assignment 2 )
- Strategic Position & Risk Assessment ( Assignment 1 )
- Marketing Plan & Sales Strategy ( Assignment 2 )
- Operations Plan ( Assignment 3 Part 1 )
- Technology Plan ( Assignment 3 Part 1 )
- Management & Organization ( Assignment 3 Part 1 )
- Ethics & Social Responsibility ( Assignment 3 Part 2)
- The Financials ( Week 7 Discussion )
- The Financials and the Management description—must spark enough interest to convince a reader to continue. Enhance the two (2) mentioned sections to appropriately engage the reader.
- Hints: The financial section of your business plan will be derived from the previously completed financial worksheets.
- Format your assignment according to these formatting requirements:
- Cite the resources you have used to complete the exercise. Note: There is no minimum requirement for the number of resources used in the exercise.
- Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
- Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
Section 2: Business Plan Financials (MS Excel worksheets bundled with course textbook)
- For year one, submit a revised Income Statement, Cash Flow Projection, and Balance Sheet from the “Business Plan Financials” Excel template based on your feedback from Project Deliverable 4: Business Plan – Draft .
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
- Describe strategic planning techniques used to formulate alternative strategies designed to achieve stated business goals.
- Create a plan to implement a firm’s strategy and manage the change from current operations.
- Analyze strategies for exerting the internal leadership needed to drive the implementation of strategic initiatives and improve operating excellence.
- Use technology and information resources to research issues in strategic management.
- Write clearly and concisely about strategic management using proper writing mechanics.
- ASSIGMENT 3 PART 1
Some of the key aspects that the company will be involved in will be the preparation of the non-alcoholic beverage. The company will make use of the facility that it already has. The facility that Melinda Cates inherited from the uncle is enough to cater for the company’s expansion plans. Melinda Cates has also inherited various equipment that is required in the preparation of the non-alcoholic beverages. New equipment is also still required. Example of the machines that are required when carrying out operations includes mixer machine, which mixes the ingredients, and the filling machine which is responsible for bottling the non-alcoholic beverage. Other equipment needed include a machine that will be responsible for labelling and capping the bottles.
The company also needs other equipment which includes vehicles, computers, and software for the management of the company. The vehicles will be used to make deliveries to the customers as well as take supplies from their suppliers for various ingredients used in the preparation of non-alcoholic beverages. The computer and graphic software will be important in computerizing the company’s data. They will be used in recording the expenses that the company accrues, maintain data on the available inventory and inform the users when the inventory is low, and there is need to do the necessary orders. Other expenses that the company is bound to accrue include the costs of buying the ingredients, taking insurance on the facility, obtaining office supplies and other utilities.
The operations also require employees who have the skills required in ensuring that they produce quality products (Jacobs & Chase, 2010). As earlier mentioned, there is a volunteer who will work in the company who has previously worked in another non-alcoholic company until he reached his retirement. He will provide guidance to the team as well as mentor the employees who will be involved in the operations process of the business. Exclusive of the volunteer, there are other two foremen that the company needs as well as other employees and also the maintenance crew.
The use of both old and new equipment that the company will use. These will reduce the efficiency of the company in comparison to when using all new equipment. The company has a competitive advantage derived from the provision of a unique nonalcoholic beverage that provides various benefits such as the provision of energy to the athletes.
For the company to be competitive, it needs to be technologically ahead of the other companies in the industries. This can be achieved by ensuring that the company makes use of the most recent technology in terms of the machine and the equipment used in the production process.
The company also needs to make use of an accounting system which is a software that helps the company in tracking its revenues, expenses as well as the assets. This system would enable the management to be able to monitor the company and determine whether the company has the capability to meet the set budget within the required time period and make the necessary changes when needed. The system would also allow various employees to input data on various issues. The company would also need to obtain Wi-Fi. This would ensure that the information stored on the system is backed up on the cloud. There is also a need for all of the computers used by the employees to be connected through networking. This would allow the company to easily share within the employees.
The Wi-Fi is also important as it would also be responsible of making the various communication with the suppliers. The company also needs to connect with the customers on various social media in order to promote their products. The company could also carry out online sales and could then deliver the products to the customers who have ordered on the company’s website. Technology also requires to maintain. This would require that the company employs an individual who would work on a part-time basis especially when needed.
The first most important part of the management is the CEO. I will be the CEO having been entrusted with the position by Melinda Cates. I hold a master’s degree in Business Administration. I will hold this position for a period of 5 years. The other major member of the management team will be Melinda Cates. She will be responsible for managing the operations as she is the only one who knows the formula that will be used in the production of the non-alcoholic beverage. She is the master mixer.
The volunteer foreman is also very important to the management team as he will be responsible for managing the employees involved in the production process. His experience in Pepsi Co. for 35 years will be ideal in providing the employee’s directions on what to do. The other important aspect of the team is the consultant by the name of Mary Cates. She was previously working for the Federal Trade Commission. Her experience at the commission will enable her to provide guidance and advice regarding the rules and regulations that the company needs to ensure it maintains free and fair practices.
The board of directors, on the other hand, will include Melinda Cates as she will be one of the shareholders through her contribution to the business. The other board members will consist of the shareholders that will provide the capital that the company will need for the expansion plan.
The company will be led by the CEO. The other positions beneath the CEO include the vice president who will be in charge of operations and vice president in charge of sales. The vice president in charge of sales will have sales, marketing and communication teams that they will be in charge of. The other part of the team is the chief financial officer who will lead the accounting team (Jeston & Nelis, 2014).
Jacobs, F. R., & Chase, R. (2010). Operations and supply chain management. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Jeston, J., & Nelis, J. (2014). Business process management. Routledge.
ASSIGNMENT 3 PART 2
The best name that fits the company is Shirley Beverage Company, which will produce non-alcoholic brands. The name is effective since it allows the company to market itself because there has not been identified another firm that uses the name. The name stands out allowing customers to have an easy time identifying it. Any other firm suggesting that the Shirley cannot be affected by litigation has not registered the name. The beverages produced by Shirley constitute of ingredients that are natural and have been epitomized with high levels of skills and perfection.
The organization’s mission statement is to enter into and to continuously operate in the competitive industry and stay in line with best corporate practices and embodies quality and taste for ultimate customer satisfaction. The mission statement is meant to allow the company to streamline its activities related to the production process. Also, it is meant to identify and satisfy clients’ preferences and make sure that the products are safe to consume. The company will make use of the mission to ensure that it builds the best environment for its customers through improved products (Sadler, 2003).
Some of the trends in the non-alcoholic industry comprise of the fact that more firms have continued to enter the market. It is because it is more favorable than the alcoholic industry that is associated with high taxes. Also, most of the firms have continued to outsource their activities as they work towards satisfying the needs of a larger group. Projections prove than the industry will grow and advance in the future based on the number of companies that have been identified to enter the industry currently. Also, there has been the introduction of new technologies that have resulted in different changes that include different packaging of the products.
The best strategic position that can be adopted by Shirley’s Beverage Company is the maintenance of continued advanced products. In other words, the best strategic position that can be initiated by the firm is ensuring that it improves its products over time by adding value to the customers (Foster, & Vasavada, 2003). The strategic position can be attained by taking the time to understand what the customers want. The market wishes to have new advanced products that have the ability to meet their requirements. It includes taking the time to change the packaging of the drinks that will make it possible for the clients to acquire a new taste.
The best distribution channel that should be initiated by the company is the direct transportation. It will allow the firm to do away with the high costs that are associated with warehousing (Freeman, 2010). Therefore, the firm will reach the market through online stores that will be meant to ease the process of buying and selling the goods. Moreover, it is essential for the company to distribute the finished goods to some stores to ensure that the clients have an easy time to reach the goods.
Some of the risks that are faced by Shirley include financial risk. The risk refers to the inability to fund all the activities associated with production. It can be handled by having good relationships with the financial institutions that can lend them money. The other risk is property risk that can occur because of issues such as fire. It can be handled by insuring its property with the insurance companies. The other risk is the regulatory risk that consists of the various laws and policies that have been implemented to control the actions of the firms that operate in the non-alcoholic beverage industry. It can be handled by taking the time to research all the policies that should be followed to ensure that the company does not break any one of them.
The identification of market segments that are best suited for the soft drinks.
The company operates in a large market that allows it to enjoy customers from different areas.
The employees are experienced since they have been working in the beverage industry for a long time enough to improve their skills.
The use of brand name that differentiates its products from the others.
Interpersonal conflicts that exist among the employees resulting in lack of motivation to work together.
The lack of funds necessary to meet all the organizational needs.
The existence of competition in the food and beverage industry.
The lack of competency by some of the employees.
The existence of high demand for the soft drinks that will result in high revenue.
The existence of emerging markets that can be exploited to help the firm to grow and develop.
Also, with the continuous change of preferences and taste, the firm is assured that will provision of high-quality products; it can outdo some of the corporations.
The availability of improve technology that can be used to identify the best processes and techniques that will build on the organization’s improvement(Martinez, 2013).
The already existing firms that have been in a position to lead in the market becoming difficult to outdo them (Böhm, 2009).
The government has managed to control the prices that result in reduced profits.
The existence of barriers-to-entry makes it costly to enter the market.
The existence of political instability that may eliminate the stability of prices.
Market Research Strategies
The company will carry out applied research to acquire a knowhow of their market. It will involve research on the industry trends, the customer’s preferences to acquire a knowhow of their market (Malinauskas et al., 2007). The research will be carried out in all the customer segments through collecting pertinent primary information regarding the customers.
Analyzing Macro-environment-PEST Analysis
Shirley’s Beverage Company has benefited from the growth oriented policies of the US. This is particularly various policies relating to the stability of macroeconomics, the interest rates that are low, the conditions of the currency that are stable as well as the competitiveness internationally in the system of arranging taxes (Malinauskas et al., 2007). These have formed a very critical foundation on the development of Shirley’s Beverage Company. Shirley’s Beverage Companyhas gained in accordance to the global value chain transparency from working together with the government initiatives.
In accordance to the biggest threat to the economy, Shirley’s Beverage Company can be a failure. If there is no success, the Shirley’s Beverage Companygrowth will be adversely affected. Shirley’s Beverage Company has been experiencing some contingent economic slowdowns since the recession and financial crisis of 2008-2009 (Malinauskas et al., 2007). Consequently, Shirley’s Beverage Company has established brand equity to take advantage of the emerging economies. Shirley’s Beverage Company development is not only influenced by the economy locally but also worldwide. If the currency weakened considerably, the lack of success would indicate sales that are minimal in theShirley’s Beverage Company (Buxton et al., 2012). However, the overall sales generated by Shirley’s Beverage Company have stabilized.
Analysis of the society
Generally, in the society people are becoming more and more careful and sensitive to health and diet. Many people are also engaging themselves in exercising their bodies. Therefore demand various products of fitness, equipment, shoes and even exercise apparel.
The company has continued to observe labor and factory conditions to remain socially responsible. This is in order not to contravene the local and the international standards.
Shirley’s Beverage Company utilizes Informational Technology in the systems of marketing very efficiently. Shirley’s Beverage Company uses the systems of marketing in the economics of innovation, in subdividing and differentiating all business organizations (Buxton et al., 2012). Shirley’s Beverage Company status of leadership owes in a big way to the using of IT that is very valuable and exercising the application of any element of its products right during the growth to supply.
Segmentation and target market analysis
Shirley’s Beverage Company market segmentation will take the population subdivision and specifically based on earnings. This implies that the markets that are targeted will be subdivided regarding earnings among them including; high earnings, middle earnings, low earnings and middle upper earnings.
The markets of earnings that are high will majorly target on those customers that have huge amounts of earnings that are disposable. The customers at this level usually shop at retailers that are highly exclusive. Mainly, they base their decision of buying on surrounding purchase atmosphere and quality of the products.
Upper Middle earnings
The customers in this section are very sound regarding the economy, and they are also oriented to what is going to happen in future. They majorly focus on the enhancement of their life quality. They are easily drawn to brands that have high status and are also very sensitive to convenience.
The customers in this section are workers who are average, and the reason for purchasing the products is usually to keep up the pace with the trends. They choose the products that are competitive against each other since they are very considerate to prices.
In this level, the customers are usually more concerned with products whose prices are low.
For Shirley’s Beverage Company rivalry that is competitive is the force that is key in the industry with the prospective of greatly curtailing growth the competition analysis for the company comprises the following
· Rivalry that is competitive within the industry which is medium to high
· The customers’ power of bargaining-low to medium
· Threat of entrants that are new in the business which is low to medium
· Suppliers power of bargaining which is low
· Threat of goods that are substitutes which are low to medium
Customers’ power of bargaining
Factors that cause the bargaining of customers may include changing styles, pricing, product sponsorship and advertising. Through coming up with a strong brand image for the energy drinks, Shirley’s Beverage Company can be able to maintain the power of the buyers to be low
Threat to entrants that are new
Resources of capital that are important are needed to create a brand that is new since investments that are major are required as capital (Buxton et al., 2012). This prevents the firms that are new from venturing into the business However there is threat form the e- commerce firms who will sell their energy drinks through the internet due to low barriers to entry in the business.
The suppliers’ power of bargaining
There should be no supplier who should hold the power of bargaining of which is very important.
Threat related to products that are substitute.
There are products that are fake and of which act as a major representation of a threat. However, there is a threat of products that are fake that Shirley’s Beverage Company may be exposed to. This could threaten the sales of the company’s energy drinks and potentially dilute the value of Shirley’s Beverage Company.
Some of the key aspects that the company will be involved in will be the preparation of the non-alcoholic beverage. The company will make use of the facility that it already has. The facility that Melinda Cates inherited from the uncle is enough to cater for the company’s expansion plans. Melinda Cates has also inherited various equipment that are required in the preparation of the non-alcoholic beverages. New equipment is also still required. Example of the machines that are required when carrying out operations include mixer machine, which mixes the ingredients, and the filing machine which is responsible of bottling the non-alcoholic beverage. Other equipment needed include a machine that will be responsible for labelling and capping the bottles.
The company also needs other equipment which include vehicles, computers and software for the management of the company. The vehicles will be used to make deliveries to the customers as well as take supplies from their suppliers for various ingredients used in the preparation of non-alcoholic beverages. The computer and graphic software will be important in computerizing the company’s data. They will be used in recording the expenses that the company accrues, maintain data on the available inventory and informing the users when the inventory is low and there is need to do the necessary orders. Other expenses that the company is bound to accrue include the costs of buying the ingredients, taking insurance on the facility, obtaining office supplies and other utilities.
The operations also require employees who have the skills required in ensuring that they produce quality products (Jacobs & Chase, 2010). As earlier mentioned, there is a volunteer who will work in the company who has previously worked in another non-alcoholic company until he reached his retirement. He will provide guidance to the team as well as mentor the employees who will be involved in the operations process of the business. Exclusive of the volunteer, there are other two foremen that the company needs as well as other employees and also the maintenance crew.
The use of both old and new equipment that the company will use. These will reduce the efficiency of the company in comparison to when using all new equipment. The company has a competitive advantage derived from the provision of a unique non-alcoholic beverage that provides various benefits such as provision of energy to the athletes.
For the company to be competitive, it needs to be technologically ahead of the other companies in the industries. This can be achieved by ensuring that the company makes use of the most recent technology in terms of the machine and the equipment used in the production process.
The company also needs to make use of an accounting system which is a software that helps the company in tracking its revenues, expenses as well as the assets. this system would enable the management to be able to monitor the company and determine whether the company has the capability to meet the set budget within the required time period and make the necessary changes when needed. The system would also allow various employees to input data on various issues. The company would also need to obtain Wi-Fi. This would ensure that the information stored on the system is backed up on the cloud. There is also a need for all of the computers used by the employees to be connected through networking. This would allow the company to easily share within the employees.
The Wi-Fi is also important as it would also be responsible of making the various communication with the suppliers. The company also needs to connect with the customers on various social media in order to promote their products. The company could also carry out online sales and could then deliver the products to the customers who have ordered on the company’s website. Technology also requires to maintained. This would require that the company employs an individual who would work on a part-time basis especially when needed.
The first most important part of the management is the CEO. I will be the CEO having been entrusted with the position by Melinda Cates. I hold a master’s degree in Business Administration. I will hold this position for a period of 5 years. The other major member of the management team will be Melinda Cates. She will be responsible of managing the operations as she is the only one who knows the formula that will be used in the production of the non-alcoholic beverage. She is the master mixer.
The volunteer foreman is also very important to the management team as he will be responsible for managing the employees involved in the production process. his experience in Pepsi Co. for 35 years will be ideal in providing the employees directions on what to do. The other important aspect of the team is the consultant by the name of Mary Cates. She was previously working for the Federal Trade Commission. Her experience at the commission will enable her to provide guidance and advice regarding the rules and regulations that the company needs to ensure it maintains free and fair practices.
The board of directors on the other hand will include Melinda Cates as she will be one of the shareholders through her contribution into the business. The other board members will consist of the shareholders that will provide the capital that the company will need for the expansion plan.
The company will be led by the CEO. The other positions beneath the CEO include the vice president who will be in charge of operations and vice president in charge of sales. The vice president in charge of sales will have a sales, marketing and communication teams that they will be in charge of. The other part of the team is the chief financial officer who will lead the accounting team (Jeston & Nelis, 2014).
The company is committed in ensuring that it is a good corporate citizen to the community. The company will achieve this by providing jobs first to the people in the community. Giving the people from the local community the priority when giving them jobs. The company will contribute in giving employment opportunities to the unemployed in the community. the company is also committed in ensuring that the company treats its employees fairly. The employees will be paid fairly and that is by ensuring that the company takes into consideration on the rates in the industry. There is need to identify what other companies in the industry pay their employees and pay the company’s employees an almost similar amount. Taking into consideration that other companies have been in the industry for longer, the amount may not be as high. The employees will also receive fair benefits such as health care (Blackburn, 2007).
As earlier discussed, Mary Cates is a consultant for the company. she has previously worked in Federal Trade Commission. As a result, she has a vast experience on the laws and regulations on the products as well as the running of the company. The company is therefore committed to ensuring that it follows all of the laws and regulations in the industry that the company operates in.
The company is also committed in treating all of the employees fairly. The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals will be given equal opportunity in comparison to other people. The company is also committed to ensuring the diversity of the workforce. This will be by ensuring that all the minority are included in the workforce.
Social and Environmental Goal
The company is committed in ensuring that it leaves a good social and environmental impact. The social aspect will be achieved by ensuring that the company meets all the legal obligations that the company. this include legal obligations on the environment. The company will dispose of its waste as expected through the law. The company will make sure that the disposal does not affect the environment as well as affecting the people around the neighboring community. The company will also make sure that it is more sustainable by making use of sustainable sources of energy.
The company is also committed on ensuring that the emission that they produce have no adverse effect on the environment as well as on the health of the people in the neighboring community. the company is bound to have some effluent. Taking this into consideration of this emissions, the company will take an effort to have the emissions treated as well as getting permission from the relevant institutions regarding the discharge of water into the sewer system (Blackburn, 2007).
The company is bound to have some impact on the environment. The main ingredient in the preparation of non-alcoholic beverage is water. The company makes use of a lot of water both in preparation of the drinks as well as in the cleaning of the bottles as well as the facility. This can contribute to the company
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The answers should come from your textbook, the lectures, videos, and the research you conducted in the APUS Library. PLEASE SEE VIDEOS AND TEXTBOOK CHAPTER READING BELOW.
MUST BE AT LEAST 300 WORDS
PLEASE PICK(ONE)OF THE QUESTIONS BELOW
1.) What effect did the World War II wartime experience have on African Americans? Did their experiences help or hinder the progress toward equality in America? How were they treated during World War II? Did the government take any steps to ease discrimination against African Americans in war industries?
2.) How did the war change African American attitudes towards their status in American society? How did it change their aspirations?
3.) How did the rhetoric of World War II bring the contradiction between the principle of equal freedom and the actual status of blacks to the forefront of national life? One black woman said about the war that it was Hitler that got blacks out of the white folks’ kitchen. How did they “move out of the kitchen” and what forces were behind those achievements?
4.) How did the Double V campaign spark a civil rights movement? How successful was the Double V campaign?
5.) Did World War II redraw the boundaries of American citizenship? Compare the experiences of blacks during World War I and during World War II.
6.) Franklin D. Roosevelt said that to be an American has always been a “matter of mind and heart,” and “never . . . a matter of race or ancestry.” Was this true for African Americans? How did the language of freedom and democracy help open doors of opportunity for African Americans? What obstacles remained for full success?
7.) Eric Foner wrote, “the language with which World War II was fought helped to lay the foundation for postwar ideals of human rights that extend to all mankind.” Do you agree with the statement as it pertains to African Americans? For African Americans, during World War II and the postwar era, what freedoms were extended or contracted?
THE ANSWER TO THE QUESTION YOU CHOOSE FROM THE 7 QUESTIONS ABOVE MUST COME FROM THE RESEARCH FROM THE LINKS BELOW AND THE TEXTBOOK CHAPTER READING WHICH IS BELOW! CAN NOT COME FROM THE INTERNET!!!!!!!!!
Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu
CHAPTER 3 From a Raw Deal to a New Deal? 1929–1945 Joe William Trotter, Jr. Long before the stock market crash in October 1929, African Americans had experienced hard times. The “last hired and the first fired,” African Americans entered the Great Depression earlier and more deeply than other racial and ethnic groups. Sociologists St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton believed that the black community served as a “barometer sensitive to the approaching storm.” Months before the stock market crash, the Chicago Defender warned, “Something is happening… and it should no longer go unnoticed. During the past three weeks hardly a day has ended that there has not been a report of another firm discharging its employees, many of whom have been faithful workers at these places for years.” The depression brought mass suffering to the country as a whole. National income dropped by nearly fifty percent, from $81 billion in 1929 to $40 billion in 1932; unemployment rose to an estimated twenty-five percent of the labor force; and nearly twenty million Americans turned to public and private relief agencies to prevent starvation and destitution. Still, African Americans suffered more than their white counterparts, received less from their government, and got what they called a “raw deal” rather than a “new deal.” The depression took its toll on virtually every facet of African American life. As unemployment rose, membership in churches, clubs, and fraternal orders dropped. Blacks frequently related the pain of this separation from friends and acquaintances. “I don’t attend church as often as I used to. You know I am not fixed like I want to be—haven’t got the clothes I need.” Blacks in the rural South faced the most devastating impact of the Great Depression. As cotton prices dropped from eighteen cents per pound to less than six cents by early 1933, an estimated two million black farmers faced hard times. The number of black sharecroppers dropped from nearly 392,000 in 1930 to under 300,000 as the depression spread. All categories of rural black labor—landowners, cash tenants, sharecroppers, and wage laborers —suffered from declining incomes. Mechanical devices had already reduced the number of workers needed for plowing, hoeing, and weeding, but planters now experimented with mechanical cotton pickers as well. As one black woman put it, many jobs had “gone to machines, gone to white people or gone out of style.” Public and private relief efforts were virtually nonexistent in the rural South, forcing farm families to continue their trek to the city. Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. The Great Depression forced growing numbers of white women to enter the work force, where they competed with black women for jobs. Here, blacks and whites work side by side at a cannery in North Carolina. Despite declining opportunities to work in southern and northern cities, black migration continued during the depression years. The percentage of urban blacks rose from about fortyfour percent in 1930 to nearly fifty percent during the depression years. The black population in northern cities increased by nearly twenty-five percent; the number of cities with black populations of over one hundred thousand increased from one in 1930 to eleven in 1935. Public social services played an increasing role in decisions to move. As the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal noted in his classic study of black life during the period, “It was much harder for Negroes who needed it to get relief in the South than in the North.” The increasing migration of blacks to cities intensified the poverty of established residents. Before the stock market crash of 1929, urban blacks had already faced the impact of increasing mechanization, declining demand for manufactured goods, and loss of employment to whites. The stock market crash further undercut the economic position of African Americans. By 1932, black urban unemployment reached well over fifty percent, more than twice the rate of whites. In northern and southern cities, black workers faced special difficulties trying to hold on to their jobs. In Pittsburgh, for example, some black workers were fired when they refused to give kickbacks to the foreman for being permitted to keep their jobs. At the same time, unemployed whites made increasing inroads on the so-called “Negro jobs,” lower-level positions that blacks had occupied during good times. Not only in factories but in street cleaning, garbage collection, and domestic service work, whites competed for the traditionally black jobs. As the depression intensified, many white women entered the labor force for the first time. They competed with black women for jobs as maids, cooks, and housekeepers. In northern cities, unemployment and destitution forced many black women to participate in the notorious “slave market.” Congregating on the sidewalks of major cities, these women offered their Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. services to white women, who drove up in their cars seeking domestic help. Some of the employers were working-class women themselves and paid as little as five dollars weekly for full-time household workers. The work was difficult indeed. One young black woman, Millie Jones, offered a detailed description of her work for one family for five dollars a week. Each and every week, believe it or not, I had to wash every one of those windows [fifteen in a six-room apartment]. If that old hag found as much as the teeniest speck on any one of ’em, she’d make me do it over. I guess I would do anything rather than wash windows. On Mondays I washed and did as much of the ironing as I could. The rest waited over for Tuesday. There were two grown sons in the family and her husband. That meant that I would have at least twenty-one shirts to do every week. Yeah, and ten sheets and at least two blankets, besides. They all had to be done just so, too. In urban factories and commercial laundries, black women also faced difficult times. In a New York laundry, black women worked fifty hours each week. According to one employee, “it was speed up, speed up, eating lunch on the fly.” Women working in the starching department stood on their feet for ten hours each day, “sticking their hands into almost boiling starch.” When the employees complained, the boss threatened to fire and replace them with workers from the large pool of unemployed women. But black women did not accept these conditions without a fight. Racism and job competition helped to narrow the margin between bare survival and destitution. Evidence of racism abounded. In the South, white workers rallied around such slogans as, “No Jobs for Niggers Until Every White Man Has a Job” and “Niggers, back to the cotton fields—city jobs are for white folks.” The most violent efforts to displace black workers occurred on southern railroads, where the white brotherhoods, as their unions were called, intimidated, attacked, and murdered black workers in order to take their jobs. By early 1933, nearly a dozen black firemen had lost their lives in various parts of the country. Although the Ku Klux Klan had declined by the mid-1920s, it now renewed attacks on African Americans. The discriminatory policies of employers and labor unions also affected African Americans in northern cities. Employers maintained their views that African Americans were fit only for dirty, unpleasant, low-paying, and heavy work. As blacks sought employment, employers again frequently claimed that, “We don’t have a foundry in our plant and that’s the kind of work Negroes are best suited for.” In Milwaukee, one firm justified its exclusion of black workers in familial and paternalistic terms: “We just sort of work like a family here and to bring in Negro workers would cause confusion and cause white workers to feel that their jobs had lost in dignity if being done by Negroes.” White workers reinforced and frequently demanded such policies. Twenty-four unions, ten of them affiliates of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), barred blacks completely and others practiced other forms of discrimination and exclusion. Thus, disproportionately large numbers of African Americans entered the bread lines, sold their belongings, and faced eviction from their homes. It was a difficult time, but the Republican administration of Herbert Hoover did little to relieve the suffering. Hoover resisted proposals for aiding the nation’s poor and destitute. Instead, he pursued a policy of indirect relief through the establishment of agencies like the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which provided loans to relieve the credit problems of Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. huge corporations like railroads, banks, and insurance companies. By “priming the pump” of big business, Hoover believed that federal aid to corporations would stimulate production, create new jobs, and increase consumer spending—that is, that wealth would “trickle down” to the rest of the economy and end the depression. Unfortunately, these policies provided little help to African Americans. Despite their suffering under the Hoover administration, African Americans rallied to the slogan “who but Hoover” in the presidential election of 1932. Hoover had not only failed to advance effective policies for dealing with the depression; he had also offended African Americans in a variety of ways, including refusing to be photographed with black leaders. Still, he received about sixty-six percent of the black votes. Only in New York and Kansas City, Missouri, did the majority of blacks vote for Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The Republican party of Abraham Lincoln was still seen as the party of emancipation. From the black vantage point Roosevelt looked little better than Hoover. As assistant secretary of the navy during the First World War, he had supported the racial segregation of the armed forces. He had also adopted Warm Springs, Georgia, as his home and accepted the system of racial segregation in that state. Moreover, during its national convention, the Democratic party rejected an NAACP proposal for a civil rights plank that called for an end to racial discrimination. Unemployed blacks line up outside the State Employment Service in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1938. During the depression blacks received far less aid than their white counterparts. Once in office, FDR did little to build confidence among African Americans. The new president depended on Southern segregationists to pass and implement his “New Deal” programs. FDR saw the depression as an economic disaster that required massive federal aid and planning. The president formulated his New Deal programs accordingly, giving close Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. attention to the needs of big business, agriculture, and labor. Roosevelt opposed federal antilynching legislation, prevented black delegations from visiting the White House, and refused to make civil rights and racial equity a priority. FDR repeatedly justified his actions on the grounds that he needed Southern white support for his economic relief and recovery programs. In a conversation with an NAACP official, he confided that, “If I come out for the anti-lynching bill now, they will block every bill I ask Congress to pass to keep America from collapsing. I just can’t take that risk.” African-American rights were placed on hold. Each piece of New Deal legislation failed to safeguard African Americans against racial discrimination. The National Recovery Administration (NRA), Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), the Works Progress [later Projects] Administration (WPA), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and the Federal Energy Relief Administration (FERA), to name only a few, all left blacks vulnerable to discriminatory employers, agency officials, and local whites. Despite the initiation of New Deal relief measures, African Americans repeatedly complained of their inability to secure relief. When a father of six lost his job and sought relief in the city of Pittsburgh, relief officials denied his request. Only when he deserted his family, his wife reported, did she and the children receive aid. According to the woman’s testimony: “He told me once that if he wasn’t living at home the welfare people would help me and the kids, and maybe he just went away on that account.” Southern state and local officials disregarded federal guidelines and paid African-American relief recipients less than their white counterparts. In Atlanta, blacks on relief received an average of $19.29 per month compared to $32.66 for whites. In Jacksonville, Florida, about five thousand whites received forty-five percent of the relief funds, while the fifteen thousand blacks on relief received the remaining fifty-five percent. Southern politicians defended the practice, arguing that the low living standard of blacks enabled them to live on less than whites. The local Federal Emergency Relief Administration was not alone in discriminating against blacks. The Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers to withdraw cotton land from production, create a shortage, and drive up the price of cotton on the market. Set up to administer the law at the local level, AAA county committees excluded African Americans from participation. By depriving African Americans of representation white landowners were able to institute policies that drove black landowners into the ranks of sharecroppers and forced growing numbers of sharecroppers off the land altogether. During its first year, for example, the AAA encouraged farmers to plow under cotton that was already planted. Landowners took government checks, plowed up cotton, and denied tenants a share of the government income. At the same time that planters removed increasing acres of land from cultivation, the largest landowners turned increasingly to scientific and mechanized farming. Tractors and cottonpicking machines rendered black labor more and more dispensable. Although their numbers dwindled, the remaining black sharecroppers earned less than their white counterparts. White sharecroppers received a mean net income of $417 per year compared to only $295 for blacks. Whites receiving hourly wages made $232 per year, compared to only $175 for blacks. Lower earnings aggravated other forms of racial inequality. In his survey of 612 black farm families in Macon County, Alabama, the sociologist Charles S. Johnson found that more than Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. half lived in one-and two-room weatherworn shacks. When asked if her house leaked when it rained, a black woman said, “No, it don’t leak in here, it just rains in here and leaks outdoors.” Another tenant complained that the landlord refused to provide lumber for repairs: “All he’s give us … is a few planks. … It’s nothin doin’. We just living outdoors.” Food was also difficult for farm families to come by. Black tenants had good reasons to view these early years of the New Deal with skepticism. The National Recovery Act also discriminated against black workers. Partly by exempting domestic service and unskilled laborers from its provisions, the NRA removed most blacks from its minimum wage and participatory requirements. Since over sixty percent of African Americans worked in these sectors, the measure had little meaning for most blacks, especially women. Nonetheless, other blacks who held on to their precarious footing in the industrial labor force, despite hard times, faced new pressures from employers and white workers. In 1934, the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Urban League reported a strike at the Wehr Steel Foundry. The chief aim of the strike, the League reported, was the “dismissal of Negroes from the plant.” When black workers decided to cross the picket line, police joined strikers in attacks on them. The Milwaukee Urban League reported that: “The first few days of the strike brought considerable violence between the Negroes who attempted to continue on the jobs and the white pickets. … Police had been summoned [by management] to protect those who cared to enter but in turn joined with the strikers in overturning an automobile filled with Negro workers.” Even on construction projects for black institutions, white workers rallied to bar African American workers. In St. Louis, for example, when the General Tile Company hired a black tile setter on the $2 million Homer Phillips Hospital for blacks, all the white AFLunion men quit and delayed construction for two months. In Long Island and Manhattan, the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and Building Service Employees’ Union pursued similar practices. When African Americans were brought under the provisions of the law in southern textile firms, employers reclassified African American jobs, in order to remove them from the protection of the NRA codes. Some firms simply argued that blacks were less efficient than whites and thus deserved low wages. In Atlanta, for example, the Scripto Manufacturing company told black workers, “This company does not base wages on color but entirely on efficiency. Our records show that the efficiency of colored help is only fifty percent of that of white help in similar plants.” Where the codes did upgrade the pay of black workers, many firms replaced their African American workforces with white employees. It is no wonder that blacks frequently called the NRA, the “Negro Run Around,” “Negroes Ruined Again”, and “Negro Rarely Allowed.” In short, NRA legislation (particularly section 7a, which gave workers the right to collective bargaining with employers) enabled labor unions to strengthen their hand at the expense of blacks in the North and South. As late as 1935, organized white labor also blocked the inclusion of a nondiscrimination clause in the National Labor Relations Act, sponsored by Senator Robert Wagner of New York. The new Wagner law gave workers and their unions extended protection in their effort to bargain collectively with management. African Americans not only faced discrimination in industrial, agricultural, and relief programs but confronted racial bias in federal housing, social security, and regional planning Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. and youth programs as well. The Federal Housing Administration refused to guarantee mortgages (homeloans) in racially integrated neighborhoods; the Social Security Act excluded farm laborers and domestic service employees; and the TVA and CCC developed along segregationist and unequal lines. Established in 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority was promoted by the Roosevelt administration as a model of social planning to improve the lives of millions of Americans in seven states in the Tennessee River Valley. It was hoped that the TVA would stimulate economic development and reduce poverty by establishing a massive program of rural electrification at dramatically reduced rates. African Americans comprised eleven percent of the two million residents of the region, and the project promised “nondiscrimination” in its official design. African Americans took heart at the promise of benefits from TVA. Yet, the project soon accepted the racial status quo for black workers and their families in the valley. The agency barred blacks from skilled and managerial positions, excluded them from vocational training programs, and reinforced patterns of segregation in housing. When queried about the exclusion of blacks from its model town of Norris, Tennessee, TVA chairman Arthur Morgan referred to a long “lilly white” waiting list and suggested that it was unlikely that blacks would be able to move to Norris. Even more important, African Americans received inadequate benefits from the reduced rates for electrical power for their homes. In an essay on the “Plight of the Negro in the Tennessee Valley,” the NAACP magazine The Crisis reported: “For Negroes the introduction of cheaper electric rates into Lee County as result of the TVA power policy has meant nothing. Landlords, whether of Negro slum dwellers in Tupelo or of Negro tenant farmers in the rural section of the county, have not found it to their advantage to wire their Negro tenants’ homes at the cost of $15 to $25, when already they are squeezing all the rent possible from these tenants.” In the face of blatant forms of discrimination during the early New Deal, African Americans found little to praise in the government’s relief efforts. They were acutely aware that they suffered disproportionately from unemployment, but faced the greatest discrimination and received the least benefits from government relief, work, housing, and social security programs. All Americans gained increasing assistance from the federal government, but such assistance would only slowly reach African Americans and help to reverse the impact of hard times on their families and communities. By the mid-1930s, however, a variety of new forces would gradually transform the “raw deal” into a “new deal.” A New Deal, 1935–1939 Between the stock market crash of 1929 and the early years of the New Deal, the condition of African Americans moved from bad to worse. Neither the Hoover administration nor the first efforts of the Democratic regime of Franklin Roosevelt did much to lessen the suffering of African Americans. By 1935, however, a variety of forces helped to transform the relationship between blacks and the New Deal. Changes in American attitudes toward race and class, the emergence of new interracial alliances, and the growing political mobilization of African Americans themselves all put pressure on the federal government to address the needs of Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. African Americans. In a nationwide radio broadcast, President Franklin D. Roosevelt symbolized the shift. In a speech before a conference of the Churches of Christ in America, he condemned lynching as murder: “Lynch law is murder, a deliberate and definite disobedience of the high command, ‘Thou shalt not kill.’ We do not excuse those in high places or low who condone lynch law.” Following the president’s pronouncement, the NAACP’s Crisis magazine exclaimed that FDR was the only president to declare “frankly that lynching is murder. We all knew it, but it is unusual to have a president of the United States admit it. These things give us hope.” As the federal government increasingly affirmed its responsibility for the social welfare of all Americans, it helped to change the context of the African-American struggle for social justice. By 1939, African Americans had gradually gained a larger share of New Deal social programs and improved their economic situation. African-American income from New Deal work and relief programs—Public Works Administration, Works Progress Administration, and Civilian Conservation Corps—now nearly equaled their income from employment in agriculture and domestic service. On CCC projects, African Americans increased their percentage from less than six percent in 1935 to eleven percent in 1939. African Americans also occupied about one-third of all low-income PWA housing units, obtained a rising share of Federal Farm Security Loans, and access to a variety of new WPA educational and cultural programs. Because the government spent more money on education, including the building of new facilities, black illiteracy dropped ten percent during the 1930s. The number of African Americans on relief and the amount of money available to them rose steadily. African Americans increasingly hailed such New Deal social programs as “a godsend.” Some even suggested that God “will lead me” but relief “will feed me.” The changing relationship between blacks and the New Deal was not merely a matter of the government’s shifting attitude toward the social welfare of all Americans. The Roosevelt administration also responded to the growing importance of the black vote on national elections, the emergence of an interracial alliance of black and white New Dealers, and especially a rising core of black federal appointees. Roosevelt acted to the growing importance of the black vote by appointing increasing numbers of African Americans to federal posts. By the mid-1930s, some forty-five blacks had received appointments in various New Deal agencies and cabinet departments. The “Black Cabinet,” as these black advisers were called, included Robert L. Vann, editor of the Pittsburgh Courier, in the office of the Attorney General; William H. Hastie, a civil rights attorney, in the Department of the Interior; Robert C. Weaver, an economist, also in the Interior Department; Lawrence A. Oxley, a social worker, in the Department of Labor; Edgar Brown, president of the United Government Employees, in the Civilian Conservation Corps; and Mary McLeod Bethune, founder of Bethune-Cookman College, head of the Negro Division of the National Youth Administration. The “Black Cabinet” enabled African Americans to improve their position in a variety of New Deal programs. Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. President Franklin Roosevelt responded to the growing importance of the black vote in national elections by appointing increasing numbers of blacks to federal posts. Members of the “Black Cabinet,” as these appointees came to be called, gathered for a photograph in 1938. The first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt, played a key role in helping these black New Dealers improve the federal response to the needs of African Americans. Although Mrs. Roosevelt had little contact with African Americans before early 1933, she soon befriended Walter White of the NAACP and Mary McLeod Bethune. Through her frequent interactions with black leaders Eleanor Roosevelt gradually increased her support of civil rights issues. Following the election of 1936, for example, she endorsed legislation designed to abolish the poll tax, make lynching a federal offense, and increase aid to black institutions, particularly schools. Historians credit Mrs. Roosevelt with helping to push FDR’s position on civil rights from one of caution and aloofness to one of significant support. FDR eventually allowed himself to be photographed with black leaders, conferred with civil rights delegations at the White House, and sent greetings to African American organizations. As the White House seemed to escalate its support for racial justice, other New Dealers took heart and advanced the cause of African Americans. The policies of Harold Ickes, Secretary of Interior and administrator of the PWA; Harry Hopkins, head of the WPA; and a few others exemplified the growing support that African Americans received in some New Deal agencies. Before taking his post as Secretary of the Interior, Ickes had served as president of the Chicago chapter of the NAACP. Upon assuming his duties, he ended segregation in the department’s rest rooms and cafeteria. Although local whites often ignored his policies, Ickes advocated the employment of skilled and unskilled black laborers on PWA construction projects. The secretary insisted that all PWA contractors agree to hire blacks in proportion to their percentage in the 1930 occupational census. Under the leadership of Harry Hopkins, the WPA established policies making it illegal for any relief official to discriminate “on account of race, creed, or color.” FDR had strengthened his hand, by issuing Executive Order 7046, which mandated that the WPA would assign persons “qualified by training and experience” to work projects without discrimination “on any grounds whatsoever.” Under Hopkins’s leadership, the WPA also promoted black adult education, hired unemployed black professionals, and stimulated the arts within the black community. The WPA Education program employed over 5,000 blacks as leaders and supervisors, taught nearly Kelley, R. D. G., & Lewis, E. (Eds.). (2014). To make our world anew : a history of african americans. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-09-04 09:56:18. Copyright © 2014. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. 250,000 blacks to read and write, and trained many for skilled jobs. The Federal Music Project staged concerts involving the works of black composers; the Federal Art Project employed hundreds of black artists; and, under the direction of Hallie Flanagan, the Federal Theater Project (FTP) established an
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As a culminating project, this assignment has two parts: an executive summary and a project plan created in Apple Merlin (MAC). Use the information and data gathered for your Business Plan to complete this assignment.
Write an executive summary of the Business Plan.
Write a project plan in Apple Merlin.
- Examine the Business Plan: Extract the distinct activities needed to start up the business: (a) Identify tasks needed to complete the project. (b) Develop a completion schedule. (c) Assign resources to project tasks.
- Be creative. For example: If the plan calls for three nurses, you will need to plan for hiring, and training. Create arbitrary timelines for each activity. They could be very general (2 weeks to hire, 2 weeks to train) or they could dive much deeper (1 week to write hiring ad, 1 week to place ad, 2 weeks to accept applications, 1 week to review, 3 weeks for interviews, 1 week for offer-letters, 2 weeks to establish in HR system, etc.). Do this for each section of the CLC Business Plan.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA Style.
Include permalink on the references.
Plagiarism MUST be less than 10%.
TYPICAL BUSINESS PLAN MODELS
Business plans form an integral part of running an organizational operation. All types of organizations need business plans to help in the running of their activities. In this regard, business plans act as guide that tells organizations where there are going, where they are and what they ought to do in order to reach where they are going (Szycher, Ph.D, 2014). There are several types and categories of business plans but the four main ones are the operating business plan, expansion/growth business plans, startup business plan and the lean business plan.
OPERATING BUSINESS PLAN
Operating business plans are one of the most important type of business plan. It is a times referred as internal business plans as they tend to be more detailed in terms of the various operations that the business is to undertake (Sahay, 2009). Internal business plans are meant for internal usage as they contain important dates that various activities have to be accomplished, various milestones, managers that have been assigned to oversee specific tasks plus their deadlines. Information is this plans can be presented in any form such as diagrams, bullet form among many more.
It is important also to note that these plans tend to focus on portraying an organization’s best practices, such as key operational lines as well as customer service. In addition, they are also prepared to highlight areas that might need an improvement. Finally but not least, they are often used to finalize or rather formalize an organizations strategy, goals, corporate culture as well as identifying specific values (Kaplan & Warren, 2009).
GROWTH/EXPANSION BUSINESS PLANS
These types of business plans are mainly developed targeting a specific product, specific market segment or for expansion purposes. For instance, if a business plan has been developed for specific product, then it is a growth business plan. Growth or rather expansion business plans tend to be sub plans that may even be carried out under one department alone.
For the case of this plans, it is important to note that they are specifically meant to improve a company’s product portfolio or their market segment. The reason why separate plans are need for such actions is due to the fact that undertaking such tasks may make a company deviate from the current operations.
START-UP BUSINESS PLANS
The initial step of starting a business involves coming up with a startup business plan that will act as a blue print to direct the company in the infantry stages of development. Such business plans are not only needed for direction but they are also indispensable in seeking finance. It is important to note that most startup business plans are lean so as to reduce operational expenses during the initial years when the business is yet to break-even. Such plans thus contains projected costs, breakeven sales, and milestones that have to be achieved after some period.
LEAN FINANCIAL PLANS
A lean business plan is simply a plan that has been developed to reduce or minimize the costs as well as wastage as much as possible. They are meant to facilitate faster production of goods and services at the least cost possible. Such plans help in setting a business strategy in the simplest way possible while offering insightful directions to be followed.
THE STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THESE MODELS.
Operational plan always keep illustrations orderly and to make comments to emphasize the ideas that has been proposed with evidence of its successful projected application and cover all the key points and explain the ideas from concept and mission statement through financial forecasts method. In addition, operational plan is extremely important in realigning management to the goals and objectives of an organization. Last but not least, operational plans are very illustrative and therefore gives enough guidance to the users of such plans how best to execute their mandate.
The lean plans is mostly preferred by a good number of recipients because the plan can be read easily and can be understood easily in addition it can be transferred quickly as they tend to small in volume. With such effectiveness they are preferred by many recipients as they are easily interpreted the plan by reading anytime they feel like doing so thus eliminating the cost that are incurred in advertising and other marketing strategies of the items or products
Business plan models tend to suffer from limitations such lack of homogeneity. These therefore means that they might be unreliable especially where competition is intense particularly while dealing with similar products and services in the market. Furthermore, developing business plans is time consuming thereby making the process to be tedious. Consequently, it is common to note that some business plans are not fully developed towards the last chapters. Such scenarios then become the undoing of most of these organizations. Change in the administration regulation or the international law may interfere with some of the models. Financial constrain is a major limitation since conducting research on how to come up with a business plan consumes a lot of resources and may cost the organization a lot.
THE BUSINESS PLAN MODELS IN APPLE MERLIN.
Apple merlin focuses on project plan designs, tracking the status of undertakings, assignment of capital and managing budgets. The business plan includes the following, checklist for tracking purposes, project budgeting, resources allocation, Gantt chats, project mapping, work breakdown structures designs, etc. this is a software company that must design the business plan by employing a well-structured strategized ideas due the overwhelming competition from other players in the market.
Business plan therefore, varies from one organization to another due the variation in the business environment, objectives, goals, financial strategy, the market trends, level of competition, economic trends, government regulation, international law etc.
In nutshell, the four modeled business plan is not comprehensive compared to that witnessed in the Apple Merlin as a result of the variation in purpose, mission and vision and the goals which varies relatively.
The lean plan is the best for the electronic medical recording because the presenter may choose to use graphs, charts, symbols while presenting the plan to the audience or the investor. Secondly, the presenter can provide handouts so that the audiences can jot down some notes about the effectiveness of the medics. Thirdly, the presenter is able to set a limit time so that the audience don’t fall into the track of boredom (Kaplan & Warren, 2009). Lastly, the presenter can perform the exercise by designing slides that are efficient, visible, and more precise and brief for the audience or the customers. This will fully capture the attention of the target people or investor.
In addition, it also encourages the target person to ask questions concerning the medical items and gives the presenter to explain more about the business plan, objectives and how much it will work best to deliver to the expectation of the target person, it also gives time to the audience to get quick response as the presentation proceeds.
In conclusion, business plan is a important factor for investors and financiers in order for them to make proper decision making or judgments before allocating funds for a given business, because the plan captures all the factors both in the internal and external environment. Choosing the right model will make an investor achieve the goals set at the specified time frame.
Kaplan, J. M., & Warren, A. C. (2009). Patterns of Entrepreneurship Management. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Publishers.
Sahay. (2009). Entrepreneurship and New Venture Creation. Excell Publishers.
Szycher, Ph.D, M. (2014). The Guide to Entrepreneurship: How to Create Wealth for Your Company and. New York: CRC Publishers.
Table of Contents
Section 1 Business and Industry Profile………………………………………………………3-4
Section 2 Product and Service Description……………………………………………………5
2.1 MEDITECH Product Description…………………………………………………5
2.2 Features of MEDITECH…………………………………………………………..5-6
2.3 Federal and Local Regulations……………………………………………………6-7
2.4 Collaborative Solutions……………………………………………………………8-9
Section 3 Operational Plan…………………………………………………………………….10
3.1 Selection of Vendor……………………………………………………………….10
3.2 Staffing for Design………………………………………………………………..10-11
3.3 Space Requirement for Main Equipment…………………………………………11
3.4 Workstations for Clinicians………………………………………………………..11-12
3.5 Staff Training…………………………………………………………………..…12-13
3.6 Physician Training………………………………………………………………..13-15
3.7 Methods and Benefits of Physician Training………………………………………15-16
3.8 Future Support…………………………………………………………………….16-17
3.9 Integration with Current Electronic Data Sources………………………………..18-19
3.10 Cost of Implementation and Maintenance……………………………………….19
Section 4 Market Analysis…………………………………………………………………….22
4.1 Target Market………………………………………………………………………22
4.2 Hospital Staff………………………………………………………………………22
4.3 Market Need……………………………………………………………………….23
4.5 Market Growth Rate……………………………………………………………..…24
4.6 Internal and External Marketing……………………………………………………25
Section 5 Financial Analysis……………………………………………………………………26
5.1 Financial Benefits…………………………………………………………………..26
5.2 Earnings Figure…………………………………………………………………26-27
5.3 Cost Benefit Analysis……………………………………………………………27-28
Section 6 References………………………………………………………………………..29-30
Section 1 Business and Industry Profile
Patient centric features in the MEDITECH enable financial departments to scan and retrieve specific patient data. This can be linked to the business department’s database for easier billing purposes. In a financial application, the patient’s information can easily be sought without wasting mush time in searching papers. In addition, scanned documents do not need physical space for storage. MEDITECH may contain digitized pictures of paper records, close photographs of alert systems, for the case, X-shafts and EKGs. In the United States, MEDITECH has made EHR approaches holding the ability to shape established structure when interconnected. Specific EMR shippers over U.S. have changed their responsibilities into EHR answers as the remedial affiliations group (“News,” n.d.)
MEDITECH is a pushing thought, starting from getting impressive records on paper copies- moving to mechanized comprehension records, and starting late being gone ahead as an Electronic Health Records (EHR) structure. Suitable execution of MEDITECH partners in diminishing honest to goodness overheads that may show the fundamental concern inclines for government-managed savings suppliers. Despite this, it may get a handle on expanded pay through the sensible usage of purposes of excitement, fulfilling the most significant number of patients being gone to (“News,” n.d.). Regardless, the nonappearance of measures for the progress of EMR methods has made shifting EMR follows in the business area that needs blend and interoperability among themselves.
MEDITECH approaches make paperless relationship over the personal affiliations industry. This kind of relationship empowers and creates a united patient vault. The records gotten by the easy usage of MEDITECH in helpful affiliations practices can be used for various purposes, for the event, cautious thought, association, look at, only systems quality change, and get planned of reimbursement. A study conducted by Harvard Medical Academy in 2008 showed administrative computerization may get a handle on saving 5% of the total helpful affiliations spending or $100 billion in the United States. This is done by decreasing deficiently sorted out events, for case, unfavorable solution times, obliging bumbles, and wounds of interventions including office snatched sicknesses. Also, abuse of emergency divisions and pointless asking for of clinical and radiology tests result in loss of $55 billion, which could be saved by the use of EMR systems at human affiliations sharpens (“Meditech news,” n.d.).
Section 2 Product and Service Description
2.1 MEDITECH Product Description
An electronic health record (EHR) is a digital copy of a patient’s paper chart (“What is an electronic,” 2013). Electronic health records contain medical and treatment histories of patients which can be available instantly to users who are authorized to access the information. MEDITECH’s electronic health record is built by physicians who understand the needs of healthcare providers. MEDITECH allows healthcare providers to transform healthcare with the ability to use innovative tools. The EHR benefits healthcare providers by maximizing productivity, providing mobile solutions, providing evidence-based decision making, and physician-driven implementation.
2.2 Features of MEDITECH
MEDITECH’s electronic health record maximizes productivity by taking patient care to another level. MEDITECH can be used in various settings like the office, the clinic, the hospital, and home. This EHR allows providers to personalize screen settings which allows providers to look at all the information that is needed in order to assist with informed decision making (“Physicians first,” n.d.). Data can be organized and a personalized method for documentation can be chosen, either by voice, template or a combination of the two.
MEDITECH EHR can be used as mobile solution. It is designed for tablets and can run on any device. With just a swipe or tap, patient information can be accessed anywhere and everywhere. MEDITECH is web-based which can be retrieved fast and has a flexible touch interface. It can be personalized based on practice by using a variety of widgets and the views can be custom-built to match anyone’s workstyle (“Physicians first,” n.d.).
There is expert content that is embedded in the MEDITECH EHR that assists in clinical decision making. This allows providers to treat patients more effectively and safely. The choices that are made by providers are supported by best practices which includes evidence-based order sets, rounding lists, clinical panels, and specialized templates that is already available in the system (“Physicians first,” n.d.).
MEDITECH accessed on tablet (“Physicians first,” n.d.)
2.3 Federal and Local Regulations
MEDITECH follows the current federal and local regulations (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). It is constantly keeping up with changes and requirements. This is part of their ongoing development process which ensures the electronic health record makes the grade. Regulations are supported with ARRA/Meaningful use. The American Reinvestment & Recovery Act (ARRA) includes measures on the infrastructure of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act (“Meaningful use introduction,” 2012). The HITECH Act supports electronic health records which is led by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). HITECH proposes the meaningful use of electronic health records in the United States health care delivery system as a national goal. In 2014, MEDITECH participated in the CMS and ONC EHR Test Program. This confirmed that all participants of MEDITECH EHR would be able to exchange patient information electronically among providers who are eligible (“EHR solutions,” n.d.).
MEDITECH supports regulations with support of HIPAA. The HIPAA Privacy Rule establishes national standards to protect patients’ medical records and any other personal health information (“The hipaa privacy,” n.d.). There are privacy rules that need to be followed when health care providers conduct health care transactions electronically. MEDITECH offers security and privacy functions as well as support for ARRA security requirements which is necessary in breach notifications.
MEDITECH EHR provides tools that will allow organizations to keep patients safe and meet The Joint Commission’s 2016 National Patient Safety Goals (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). Customers who use MEDITECH receive the support that is needed in order to meet these guidelines. These guidelines are set for organizations to improve quality of care by identifying patients correctly, improving the communication between staff, improving the use of medications safely, improving the safety of clinical alarm systems, identifying safety risks of
patients, and preventing mistakes that can occur in surgeries (“The join commission,” n.d.).
2.4 Collaborative Solutions
MEDITECH collaborates with many vendors in order to integrate healthcare solutions for their customers. They have integrated clinical, financial, technical and operational solutions into its EHR. First Databank (FDB) is a part of the clinical content that has been integrated into MEDITECH. First Databank provides MEDITECH customers with dictionaries that can identify drug interactions and monograph information that is needed when using MEDITECH’s Pharmacy solution (“Collaborative solutions,” n.d.). First Databank’s drug monograph is used when medication is being administered. This enhances patient safety when patients are receiving medications in the hospital or clinical setting. Medications are checked by using the patients’ medication profile in MEDITECH while using the FDB knowledge base. MEDITECH has collaborated with various hardware vendors. Cisco, which is a leader in technology, offers healthcare solutions to improve workflow. Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) uses Intel Xeon processors which is the next development of the hospital data center. Dell is a trusted partner of MEDITECH. Dell has more than 4,000 hospitals who have been supported with their transition to MEDITECH EHR (“Collaborative solutions,” n.d.). Dell has PowerEdge Servers that allow MEDITECH applications to be accessed faster and can be used efficiently. MEDITECH has partnered with EMC which offers various storage, backup, and disaster recovery solutions. EMC’s Healthcare Solutions organization provides comprehensive service and support during the planning and implementation of EHR (“Collaborative
solutions,” n.d.). Hewlett Packard (HP), International Business Machines (IBM) and NetApp are other vendors that MEDITECH have joined with in order to create a positive change for customers when MEDITECH EHR is being implemented.
Patient education is an important part in healthcare. MEDITECH uses EBSCO Publishing, which provides evidence-based information for patients (“Collaborative solutions,” n.d.). Discharge instructions are integrated into MEDITECH’s departure process. This provides information that is easy to understand for patients who are being discharged from the hospital. ExitCare is an Elsevier company that is integrated to MEDITECH as well. It provides prints, videos and interactive solutions that can be used for patient education and discharge instructions (“Collaborative solutions,” n.d.). ExitCare can be used in many different healthcare settings and includes many languages. This can improve workflow, reduce hospital re-admissions, and increase patient knowledge.
Section 3-Operational Plan
3.1 Selection of Vendor
MEDITECH is the EMR vendor of choice because it is affordable and easy to use. The program interface is used by over 2300 companies around the world. With MEDITECH the hospital and clinics will be able to have universal access across the spectrum which will create smoother transitions between the continuum of care. This clinically integrated network has real-time data. The shared, mobile, patient-centered online electronic health record was designed by clinicians to be as user friendly as possible.
1,000-25,000 a month
3x Less than Epic
$200-$700 per provider per month
Figure 1. Feature Analysis (Medved, 2014)
3.2 Staffing for Design
The hospital/clinical Marketing director will be responsible for putting together promotional material for external marketing such as brochures, door handle signs, posters, advertisements, post cards, and flyers. These types of marketing devices are the easiest to be consumed by the varied age demographics at the hospital and the clinics though out the city.
3.3 Space Requirement for Main Equipment
Since MEDITECH uses web-based technology, there is no need for a large amount of space for hardware requirements. MEDITECH has developed browser-based solutions that allow users to access information from any browser (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). Current wireless routers can be used around the hospitals and clinics to access MEDITECH using a web browser. In order to access MEDITECH, a hardware vendor, hardware integrator, system technology and a hosting service provider is needed. The hospital and clinics will use Dell PowerEdge Servers that will allow for faster access of MEDITECH applications (“Collaborative solutions,” n.d.). Dell MSite will be used as a hosting service that will be managed by MEDITECH Hosting Solution. Citrix, a cloud company, will be used as the system technology which will enable mobility and provide speedy access to information on the EHR. The hardware integrator that will be used is CloudWave which will implement data center technology, virtual desktops, and help with backup and disaster recovery solutions (“Collaborative solutions,” n.d.). Using MEDITECH web-based technology will save space and current equipment that is already available can be used.
3.4 Workstations for Clinicians
Clinicians will be able to access MEDITECH EHR using desktops, laptops, tablets and personal devices. Current workstations that already have desktops and laptops do not need to be replaced. In order to help with mobile solutions, 5-10 tablets will be purchased for each department that is involved with direct patient care and clinicians. This will improve current workflow as well. Different clinical departments throughout the hospital will have instantaneous access to real-time patient information (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). Present results, documentation and medication conflicts will be available for clinicians who depend on this information (“EHR solutions,” n.d.).
3.5 Staff Training
Once MEDITECH EHR is ready to be used, staff training is a necessary component of the implementation process. All clinicians and other users will go through extensive training. Doctors will have separate training from other users, since they will use more features of MEDITECH. Since MEDITECH will be implemented in the hospital and four other clinics, the training process will take about a month to complete. The departments in the hospital consist of Medical/Surgical, Telemetry, Obstetrics, Pediatrics, and Emergency. There will be representatives from each department who will be trained as super users on the program. These representatives will form a new department in the hospital who will help in the implementation process of MEDITECH. With their knowledge, they will be able to teach those in their department. They will also serve as the gate keeper if there are every any updates needed. They will be responsible for the training of the staff in their department and attesting for their skills with the new program. Once training is complete, a proficiency exam needs to be taken by all staff to ensure knowledge and understanding of EMR.
All users will be required to attend a training class that will last three hours and will be divided by clinical department. The super users will train a maximum of ten employees at a time. Dividing the classes based on clinical department will allow for ease of training and navigation of MEDITECH applications that are customized for each department. MEDITECH has created a “READY” implementation plan that can serve as a guide when providing staff training (“EHR solutions,” n.d.).
- Rapid Adoption
- Evidence Based Content
- Advanced Workflows
- Dedicated Teams
- Your Success
“Rapid adoption” will give clinicians and other users individual support that may be needed when using the new system (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). “Dedicated teams” will provide special training sessions for individuals who may need more time learning how to navigate and use MEDITECH EHR.
3.6 Physician training
End-user training for doctors and other restorative suppliers must be clear, thoughtful, easier to be understood and use to guarantee effective execution, realization, end-client fulfilment and suitable in utilization of the EMR. Inability to do as such might bring about patient security, quality, and productivity issues, and additionally doctor disappointment. Critical viewpoints to consider are doctor engagement, timing, curricular configuration, appraisal of capability, and acknowledgment.
End-User Training is a crucial component of electronic medical record (EMR) execution and regularly experiences insignificant institutional venture. Free-message remarks from learners concentrated on length of time and timing of preparing, the learning environment, nature of the teachers, and specificity of preparing to their part or office. Based upon member input and institutional experience, best practice proposals, including doctor engagement, curricular outline, and appraisal of capability and acknowledgment, are recommended for future supplier EMR preparing programs. The EMR creators unequivocally should prescribe the production of coursework to gathering suppliers by regular work process (“Software”, n.d.).
The extent of the project is to prepare all credentialed suppliers to utilize the new EMR for particular work processes; including staff, group doctors, colleagues, and occupants. The preparation group comprised of eight instructional planners who are in charge of the preparation content, preparing setting creation, and training of the end-client mentors for their given application for example, wandering, inpatient, radiology and so on. Likewise works intimately with the suitable application group to comprehend the specialized improvement of every work process and to give ease of use criticism from a learner’s point of view. The doctor lead works intimately with the preparation administrator to decide the structure, substance, and logistics of supplier preparing (“Meditech,” n.d.)
3.7 Methods & Benefits of Physician Training
Because of the order of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, there has been an ascent in the quantity of government interests in projects that increment EMR adoption EMR (Pantaleoni, Stevens, Mailes, Goad & Longhurst, 2015). The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act bit of this jolt law will give installments to suppliers that show they have achieved the standard for “important use”. This will drive more doctors’ facilities to embrace EMR. However, they have had diverse encounters in receiving electronic medicinal records.
There are a few stages that should be taken so as to receive electronic medical records.
- A steady situation, satisfactory preparing and assets, an unmistakable heading, and connected with individuals are a couple of things needed.
- A solid pioneer is additionally vital keeping in mind the end goal to encourage the changing environment and utilizing gatherings and declarations as appropriation advancement strategies have been appeared to be helpful.
- Having the clinical staff included is additionally a key component in effectively receiving electronic restorative records. Numerous healing centers use “doctor champions,” who are basically doctors who teach their associates on the advantages of electronic medical records.
- Moreover, the significance of value division pioneers has been pushed so as to ensure the electronic restorative records framework is useful in giving quality consideration.
The benefits of a necessity incorporate consistency of end-client learning base and the fortification that the correct preparing is required to accomplish fancied effectiveness and patient security. Another choice to be made by an association is regardless of whether the doctor preparing ought to be required preceding acquiring security access to the new EMR (Pantaleoni, Stevens, Mailes, Goad & Longhurst, 2015).
3.8 Future support
There will be IT staff on campus who will be available and IT staff available remotely. This is an IT staff consisting of eight members who are all trained on the MEDITECH program and have been granted access to all areas of MEDITECH. The IT staff will be able to provide support for the main hospital and clinics. Since MEDITECH reduces the reliance on interfaces, it makes information easy to maintain and the IT staff will be more at ease during the transition (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). MEDITECH’s dedicated team will be available once MEDITECH EHR goes live (“EHR solutions,” n.d.). They will be available to help with the transition, answer any questions the IT staff may have and help solve any issues that may arise.
3.9 Integration with Current Electronic Data Sources
Electronic Medical Records (EMR) are the business standard in medicinal records administration. We can integrate the EMR with other existing electronic data sources (imaging, laboratory, dictation, billing, quality software systems by using the latest technology, and new methods of business by using the software that is used for connectivity by means of the Data Sources and the EMR. We can actualize EMR
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you are required to write a 5-6 page paper on ‘The American Century”. Don’t go too global. Focus on the relationship between luce’s essay and public opinion in the US before Pearl Harbor.Most Americans did not want to go to war.Luce, on the other hand, sees this as an opportunity to assert America’s world leadership.
Start by identifying passages in the essay that most clearly state Luce’s position and build the paper around them.
The American CenturyHENRY R. LUCE(first published in LIFE magazine 17 February 1941)We Americans are unhappy. We are not happy about America. We are not happy about ourselves in relation to America. We are nervous – or gloomy – or apathetic.As we look out at the rest of the world we are confused; we don’t know what to do. “Aid to Britain short of war” is typical of halfway hopes and halfway measures.As we look toward the future – our own future and the future of other nations – we are filled with foreboding. The future doesn’t seem to hold anything for us except conflict, disruption, war.There is a striking contrast between our state of mind and that of the British people. On Sept. 3, 1939, the first day of the war in England, Winston Churchill had this to say: “Outside the storms of war may blow and the land may be lashed with the fury of its gales, but in our hearts this Sunday morning there is Peace.” Since Mr. Churchill spoke those words the German Luftwaffe has made havoc of British cities, driven the population underground, frightened children from their sleep, and imposed upon everyone a nervous strain as great as any that people have ever endured. Readers of LIFE have seen this havoc unfolded week by week.Yet close observers agree that when Mr. Churchill spoke of peace in the hearts of the British people he was not indulging in idle oratory. The British people are profoundly calm. There seems to be a complete absence of nervousness. It seems as if all the neuroses of modern life had vanished from England.In the beginning the British Government made elaborate preparations for an increase in mental breakdowns. But these have actually declined. There have been fewer than a dozen breakdowns reported in London since the air raids began.The British are calm in their spirit not because they have nothing to worry about but because they are fighting for their lives. They have made that decision. And they have no further choice. All their mistakes of the past 20 years, all the stupidities and failures that they have shared with the rest of the democratic world, are now of the past. They can forget them because they are faced with a supreme task – defending, yard by yard, their island home.With us it is different. We do not have to face any attack tomorrow or the next day. Yet we are faced with something almost as difficult. We are faced with great decisions.* * *We know how lucky we are compared to all the rest of mankind. At least two-thirds of us are just plain rich compared to all the rest of the human family – rich in food, rich in clothes, rich in entertainment and amusement, rich in leisure, rich.And yet we also know that the sickness of the world is also our sickness. We, too, have miserably failed to solve the problems of our epoch. And nowhere in the world have man’s failures been so little excusable as in the United States of America. Nowhere has the contrast been so great between the reasonable hopes of our age and the actual facts of failure and frustration. And so now all our failures and mistakes hover like birds of ill omen over the White House, over the Capitol dome and over this printed page. Naturally, we have no peace. But, even beyond this necessity for living with our own misdeeds, there is another reason why there is no peace in our hearts. It is that we have not been honest with ourselves.In this whole matter of War and Peace especially, we have been at various times and in various ways false to ourselves, false to each other, false to the facts of history and false to the future.In this self-deceit our political leaders of all shades of opinion are deeply implicated. Yet we cannot shove the blame off on them. If our leaders have deceived us it is mainly because we ourselves have insisted on being deceived. Their deceitfulness has resulted from our own moral and intellectual confusion. In this confusion, our educators and churchmen and scientists are deeply implicated.Journalists, too, of course, are implicated. But if Americans are confused it is not for lack of accurate and pertinent information. The American people are by far the best informed people in the history of the world. The trouble is not with the facts. The trouble is that clear and honest inferences have not been drawn from the facts. The day-to-day present is clear. The issues of tomorrow are befogged.There is one fundamental issue which faces America as it faces no other nation. It is an issue peculiar to America and peculiar to America in the 20th Century – now. It is deeper even than the immediate issue of War. If America meets it correctly, then, despite hosts of dangers and difficulties, we can look forward and move forward to a future worthy of men, with peace in our hearts. If we dodge the issue, we shall flounder for ten or 20 or 30 bitter years in a chartless and meaningless series of disasters.The purpose of this article is to state that issue, and its solution, as candidly and as completely as possible. But first of all let us be completely candid about where we are and how we got there.AMERICA IS IN THE WAR. . . But are we in it?Where are we? We are in the war. All this talk about whether this or that might or might not get us into the war is wasted effort. We are, for a fact, in the war.If there’s one place we Americans did not want to be, it was in the war. We didn’t want much to be in any kind of war but, if there was one kind of war we most of all didn’t want to be in, it was a European war. Yet, we’re in a war, as vicious and bad a war as ever struck this planet, and, along with being worldwide, a European war.Of course, we are not technically at war, we are not painfully at war, and we may never have to experience the full hell that war can be. Nevertheless the simple statement stands: we are in the war. The irony is that Hitler knows it -and most Americans don’t. It may or may not be an advantage to continue diplomatic relations with Germany. But the fact that a German embassy still flourishes in Washington beautifully illustrates the whole mass of deceits and self-deceits in which we have been living.Perhaps the best way to show ourselves that we are in the war is to consider how we can get out of it. Practically, there’s only one way to get out of it and that is by a German victory over England. If England should surrender soon, Germany and America would not start fighting the next day. So we would be out of the war. For a while. Except that Japan might then attack the South Seas and the Philippines. We could abandon the Philippines, abandon Australia and New Zealand, withdraw to Hawaii. And wait. We would be out of the war. We say we don’t want to be in the war. We also say we want England to win. We want Hitler stopped – more than we want to stay out of the war. So, at the moment, we’re in.WE GOT IN VIA DEFENSE. . . But what are we defending?Now that we are in this war, how did we get in? We got in on the basis of defense. Even that very word, defense, has been full of deceit and self-deceit. To the average American the plain meaning of the word defense is defense of the American territory. Is our national policy today limited to the defense of the American homeland by whatever means may seem wise? It is not. We are not in a war to defend American territory. We are in a war to defend and even to promote, encourage and incite so-called democratic principles throughout the world. The average American begins to realize now that that’s the kind of war he’s in. And he’s halfway for it. But he wonders how he ever got there, since a year ago he had not the slightest intention of getting into any such thing. Well, he can see now how he got there. He got there via “defense.”Behind the doubts in the American mind there were and are two different picture-patterns. One of them stressing the appalling consequences of the fall of England leads us to a war of intervention. As a plain matter of the defense of American territory is that picture necessarily true? It is not necessarily true. For the other picture is roughly this: while it would be much better for us if Hitler were severely checked, nevertheless regardless of what happens in Europe it would be entirely possible for us to organize a defense of the northern part of the Western Hemisphere so that this country could not be successfully attacked. You are familiar with that picture. Is it true or false? No man is qualified to state categorically that it is false. If the entire rest of the world came under the organized domination of evil tyrants, it is quite possible to imagine that this country could make itself such a tough nut to crack that not all the tyrants in the world would care to come against us. And of course there would always be a better than even chance that, like the great Queen Elizabeth, we could play one tyrant off against another. Or, like an infinitely mightier Switzerland, we could live discreetly and dangerously in the midst of enemies. No man can say that that picture of America as an impregnable armed camp is false. No man can honestly say that as a pure matter of defense – defense of our homeland – it is necessary to get into or be in this war. The question before us then is not primarily one of necessity and survival. It is a question of choice and calculation. The true questions are: Do we want to be in this war? Do we prefer to be in it? And, if so, for what?WE OBJECT TO BEING IN IT. . . Our fears have a special causeWe are in this war. We can see how we got into it in terms of defense. Now why do we object so strongly to being in it?There are lots of reasons. First, there is the profound and almost universal aversion to all war – to killing and being killed. But the reason which needs closest inspection, since it is one peculiar to this war and never felt about any previous war, is the fear that if we get into this war, it will be the end of our constitutional democracy. We are all acquainted with the fearful forecast – that some form of dictatorship is required to fight a modern war, that we will certainly go bankrupt, that in the process of war and its aftermath our economy will be largely socialized, that the politicians now in office will seize complete power and never yield it up, and that what with the whole trend toward collectivism, we shall end up in such a total national socialism that any faint semblances of our constitutional American democracy will be totally unrecognizable. We start into this war with huge Government debt, a vast bureaucracy and a whole generation of young people trained to look to the Government as the source of all life. The Party in power is the one which for long years has been most sympathetic to all manner of socialist doctrines and collectivist trends.The President of the United States has continually reached for more and morepower, and he owes his continuation in office today largely to the coming of the war. Thus, the fear that the United States will be driven to a national socialism, as a result of cataclysmic circumstances and contrary to the free will of the American people, is an entirely justifiable fear.BUT WE WILL WIN IT. . . The big question is howSo there’s the mess – to date. Much more could be said in amplification, in qualification, and in argument. But, however elaborately they might be stated, the sum of the facts about our present position brings us to this point – that the paramount question of this immediate moment is not whether we get into war but how do we win it?
If we are in a war, then it is no little advantage to be aware of the fact. And once we admit to ourselves we are in a war, there is no shadow of doubt that we Americans will be determined to win it – cost what it may in life or treasure. Whether or not we declare war, whether or not we send expeditionary forces abroad, whether or not we go bankrupt in the process – all these tremendous considerations are matters of strategy and management and are secondary to the overwhelming importance of winning the war.WHAT ARE WE FIGHTING FOR?. . . And why we need to knowHaving now, with candor, examined our position, it is time to consider, to better purpose than would have been possible before, the larger issue which confronts us. Stated most simply, and in general terms, that issue is: What are we fighting for?Each of us stands ready to give our life, our wealth, and all our hope of personal happiness, to make sure that America shall not lose any war she is engaged in. But we would like to know what war we are trying to win – and what we are supposed to win when we win it.This questioning reflects our truest instincts as Americans. But more than that. Our urgent desire to give this war its proper name has a desperate practical importance. If we know what we are fighting for, then we can drive confidently toward a victorious conclusion and, what’s more, have at least an even chance of establishing a workable Peace.Furthermore – and this is an extraordinary and profoundly historical fact which deserves to be examined in detail – America and only America can effectively state the war aims of this war.Almost every expert will agree that Britain cannot win complete victory -cannot even, in the common saying, “stop Hitler” – without American help. Therefore, even if Britain should from time to time announce war aims, the American people are continually in the position of effectively approving or not approving those aims. On the contrary, if America were to announce war aims, Great Britain would almost certainly accept them. And the entire world including Adolf Hitler would accept them as the gauge of this battle.Americans have a feeling that in any collaboration with Great Britain we are somehow playing Britain’s game and not our own. Whatever sense there may have been in this notion in the past, today it is an ignorant and foolish conception of the situation. In any sort of partnership with the British Empire, Great Britain is perfectly willing that the United States of America should assume the role of senior partner. This has been true for a long time. Among serious Englishmen, the chief complaint against America (and incidentally their best alibi for themselves) has really amounted to this – that America has refused to rise to the opportunities of leadership in the world.Consider this recent statement of the London Economist :”If any permanent closer association of Britain and the United States is achieved, an island people of less than 50 millions cannot expect to be the senior partner. . . . The center of gravity and the ultimate decision must increasingly lie in America. We cannot resent this historical development. We may rather feel proud that the cycle of dependence, enmity and independence is coming full circle into a new interdependence.” We Americans no longer have the alibi that we cannot have things the way we want them so far as Great Britain is concerned. With due regard for the varying problems of the members of the British Commonwealth, what we want will be okay with them. This holds true even for that inspiring proposal called Union Now – a proposal, made by an American, that Britain and the United States should create a new and larger federal union of peoples. That may not be the right approach to our problem. But no thoughtful American has done his duty by the United States of America until he has read and pondered Clarence Streit’s book presenting that proposal.The big, important point to be made here is simply that the complete opportunity of leadership is ours. Like most great creative opportunities, it is an opportunity enveloped in stupendous difficulties and dangers. If we don’t want it, if we refuse to take it, the responsibility of refusal is also ours, and ours alone. Admittedly, the future of the world cannot be settled all in one piece. It is stupid to try to blueprint the future as you blueprint an engine or as you draw up a constitution for a sorority. But if our trouble is that we don’t know what we are fighting for, then it’s up to us to figure it out. Don’t expect some other country to tell us. Stop this Nazi propaganda about fighting somebody else’s war. We fight no wars except our wars. “Arsenal of Democracy?” We may prove to be that. But today we must be the arsenal of America and of the friends and allies of America.Friends and allies of America? Who are they, and for what? This is for us to tell them.DONG DANG OR DEMOCRACY. . . But whose Dong Dang, whose Democracy?But how can we tell them? And how can we tell ourselves for what purposes we seek allies and for what purposes we fight? Are we going to fight for dear old Danzig or dear old Dong Dang? Are we going to decide the boundaries of Uritania? Or, if we cannot state war aims in terms of vastly distant geography, shall we use some big words like Democracy and Freedom and Justice? Yes, we can use the big words. The President has already used them. And perhaps we had better get used to using them again. Maybe they do mean something -about the future as well as the past.Some amongst us are likely to be dying for them – on the fields and in the skies of battle. Either that, or the words themselves and what they mean die with us – in our beds.But is there nothing between the absurd sound of distant cities and the brassy trumpeting of majestic words? And if so, whose Dong Dang and whose Democracy? Is there not something a little more practically satisfying that we can get our teeth into? Is there no sort of understandable program? A program which would be clearly good for America, which would make sense for America – and which at the same time might have the blessing of the Goddess of Democracy and even help somehow to fix up this bothersome matter of Dong Dang? Is there none such? There is. And so we now come squarely and closely face to face with the issue which Americans hate most to face. It is that old, old issue with those old, old battered labels -the issue of Isolationism versus Internationalism. We detest both words. We spit them at each other with the fury of hissing geese. We duck and dodge them.Let us face that issue squarely now. If we face it squarely now – and if in facing it we take full and fearless account of the realities of our age – then we shall open the way, not necessarily to peace in our daily lives but to peace in our hearts.Life is made up of joy and sorrow, of satisfactions and difficulties. In this time of trouble, we speak of troubles. There are many troubles. There are troubles in the field of philosophy, in faith and morals. There are troubles of home and family, of personal life. All are interrelated but we speak here especially of the troubles of national policy.In the field of national policy, the fundamental trouble with America has been, and is, that whereas their nation became in the 20th Century the most powerful and the most vital nation in the world, nevertheless Americans were unable to accommodate themselves spiritually and practically to that fact. Hence they have failed to play their part as a world power – a failure which has had disastrous consequences for themselves and for all mankind. And the cure is this: to accept wholeheartedly our duty and our opportunity as the most powerful and vital nation in the world and in consequence to exert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such purposes as we see fit and by such means as we see fit.* * *”For such purposes as we see fit” leaves entirely open the question of what our purposes may be or how we may appropriately achieve them. Emphatically our only alternative to isolationism is not to undertake to police the whole world nor to impose democratic institutions on all mankind including the Dalai Lama and the good shepherds of Tibet.America cannot be responsible for the good behavior of the entire world. But America is responsible, to herself as well as to history, for the world environment in which she lives. Nothing can so vitally affect America’s environment as America’s own influence upon it, and therefore if America’s environment is unfavorable to the growth of American life, then America has nobody to blame so deeply as she must blame herself. In its failure to grasp this relationship between America and America’s environment lies the moral and practical bankruptcy of any and all forms of isolationism. It is most unfortunate that this virus of isolationist sterility has so deeply infected an influential section of the Republican Party. For until the Republican Party can develop a vital philosophy and program for America’s initiative and activity as a world power, it will continue to cut itself off from any useful participation in this hour of history. And its participation is deeply needed for the shaping of the future of America and of the world.* * *But politically speaking, it is an equally serious fact that for seven years Franklin Roosevelt was, for all practical purposes, a complete isolationist. He was more of an isolationist than Herbert Hoover or Calvin Coolidge. The fact that Franklin Roosevelt has recently emerged as an emergency world leader should not obscure the fact that for seven years his policies ran absolutely counter to any possibility of effective American leadership in international co-operation. There is of course a justification which can be made for the President’s first two terms. It can be said, with reason, that great social reforms were necessary in order to bring democracy up-to-date in the greatest of democracies. But the fact is that Franklin Roosevelt failed to make American democracy work successfully on a narrow, materialistic and nationalistic basis. And under Franklin Roosevelt we ourselves have failed to make democracy work successfully. Our only chance now to make it work is in terms of a vital international economy and in terms of an international moral order. This objective is Franklin Roosevelt’s great opportunity to justify his first two terms and to go down in history as the greatest rather than the last of American Presidents. Our job is to help in every way we can, for our sakes and our children’s sakes, to ensure that Franklin Roosevelt shall be justly hailed as America’s greatest President.Without our help he cannot be our greatest President. With our help he can and will be. Under him and with his leadership we can make isolationism as dead an issue as slavery, and we can make a truly American internationalism something as natural to us in our time as the airplane or the radio. In 1919 we had a golden opportunity, an opportunity unprecedented in all history, to assume the leadership of the world – a golden opportunity handed to us on the proverbial silver platter. We did not understand that opportunity.Wilson mishandled it. We rejected it. The opportunity persisted. We bungled it in the 1920’s and in the confusions of the 1930’s we killed it. To lead the world would never have been an easy task. To revive the hope of that lost opportunity makes the task now infinitely harder than it would have been before. Nevertheless, with the help of all of us, Roosevelt must succeed where Wilson failed.THE 20TH CENTURY IS THE AMERICAN CENTURY. . . Some facts about our timeConsider the 20th Century. It is not only in the sense that we happen to live in it but ours also because it is America’s first century as a dominant power in the world. So far, this century of ours has been a profound and tragic disappointment. No other century has been so big with promise for human progress and happiness. And in no one century have so many men and women and children suffered such pain and anguish and bitter death. It is a baffling and difficult and paradoxical century. No doubt all centuries were paradoxical to those who had to cope with them. But, like everything else, our paradoxes today are bigger and better than ever. Yes, better as well as bigger – inherently better. We have poverty and starvation – but only in the midst of plenty. We have the biggest wars in the midst of the most widespread, the deepest and the most articulate hatred of war in all history. We have tyrannies and dictatorships – but only when democratic idealism, once regarded as the dubious eccentricity of a colonial nation, is the faith of a huge majority of the people of the world.And ours is also a revolutionary century. The paradoxes make it inevitably revolutionary. Revolutionary, of course, in science and in industry. And also revolutionary, as a corollary in politics and the structure of society. But to say that a revolution is in progress is not to say that the men with either the craziest ideas or the angriest ideas or the most plausible ideas are going to come out on top. The Revolution of 1776 was won and established by men most of whom appear to have been both gentlemen and men of common sense. Clearly a revolutionary epoch signifies great changes, great adjustments. And this is only one reason why it is really so foolish for people to worry about our “constitutional democracy” without worrying or, better, thinking hard about the world revolution. For only as we go out to meet and solve for our time the problems of the world revolution, can we know how to re-establish our constitutional democracy for another 50 or 100 years. This 20th Century is baffling, difficult, paradoxical, revolutionary. But by now, at the cost of much pain and many hopes deferred, we know a good deal about it. And we ought to accommodate our outlook to this knowledge so dearly bought. For example, any true conception of our world of the 20th Century must surely include a vivid awareness of at least these four propositions.First: our world of 2,000,000,000 human beings is for the first time in history one world, fundamentally indivisible. Second: modern man hates war and feels intuitively that, in its present scale and frequency, it may even be fatal to his species. Third: our world, again for the first time in human history, is capable of producing all the material needs of the entire human family. Fourth: the world of the 20th Century, if it is to come to life in any nobility of health and vigor, must be to a significant degree an American Century. As to the first and second: in postulating the indivisibility of the contemporary world, one does not necessarily imagine that anything like a world state -a parliament of men – must be brought about in this century. Nor need we assume that war can be abolished. All that it is necessary to feel – and to feel deeply – is that terrific forces of magnetic attraction and repulsion will operate as between every large group of human beings on this planet. Large sections of the human family may be effectively organized into opposition to each other. Tyrannies may require a large amount of living space. But Freedom requires and will require far greater living space than Tyranny. Peace cannot endure unless it prevails over a very large part of the world. Justice will come near to losing all meaning in the minds of men unless Justice can have approximately the same fundamental meanings in many lands and among many peoples. As to the third point – the promise of adequate production for all mankind, the “more abundant life” – be it noted that this is characteristically an American promise. It is a promise easily made, here and elsewhere, by demagogues and proponents of all manner of slick schemes and “planned economies.” What we must insist on is that the abundant life is predicated on Freedom – on the Freedom which has created its possibility – on a vision of Freedom under Law. Without Freedom, there will be no abundant life. With Freedom, there can be. And finally there is the belief – shared let us remember by most men living -that the 20th Century must be to a significant degree an American Century. This knowledge calls us to action now.AMERICA’S VISION OF OUR WORLD. . . How it shall be createdWhat can we say and foresee about an American Century? It is meaningless merely to say that we reject isolationism and accept the logic of internationalism. What internationalism? Rome had a great internationalism. So had the Vatican and Genghis Khan and the Ottoman Turks and the Chinese Emperors and 19th Century England. After the first World War, Lenin had one in mind. Today Hitler seems to have one in mind – one which appeals strongly to some American isolationists whose opinion of Europe is so low that they would gladly hand it over to anyone who would guarantee to destroy it forever. But what internationalism have we Americans to offer?Ours cannot come out of the vision of any one man. It must be the product of the imaginations of many men. It must be a sharing with all peoples of our Bill of Rights, our Declaration of Independence, our Constitution, our magnificent industrial products, our technical skills. It must be an internationalism of the people, by the people and for the people.In general, the issues which the American people champion revolve around their determination to make the society of men safe for the freedom, growth and increasing satisfaction of all individual men. Beside that resolve, the sneers, groans, catcalls, teeth-grinding, hisses and roars of the Nazi Propaganda Ministry are of small moment.Once we cease to distract ourselves with lifeless arguments about isolationism, we shall be amazed to discover that there is already an immense American internationalism. American jazz, Hollywood movies, American slang, American machines and patented products, are in fact the only things that every community in the world, from Zanzibar to Hamburg, recognizes in common. Blindly, unintentionally, accidentally and really in spite of ourselves, we are already a world power in all the trivial ways – in very human ways. But there is a great deal more than that. America is already the intellectual, scientific and artistic capital of the world.Americans -Midwestern Americans – are today the least provincial people in the world. They have traveled the most and they know more about the world than the people of any other country. America’s worldwide experience in commerce is also far greater than most of us realize. Most important of all, we have that indefinable, unmistakable sign of leadership: prestige. And unlike the prestige of Rome or Genghis Khan or 19th Century England, American prestige throughout the world is faith in the good intentions as well as in the ultimate intelligence and ultimate strength of the whole American people. We have lost some of that prestige in the last few years. But most of it is still there.* * *No narrow definition can be given to the American internationalism of the 20th Century. It will take shape, as all civilizations take shape, by the living of it, by work and effort, by trial and error, by enterprise and adventure and experience.And by imagination!As America enters dynamically upon the world scene, we need most of all to seek and to bring forth a vision of America as a world power which is authentically American and which can inspire us to live and work and fight with vigor and enthusiasm. And as we come now to the great test, it may yet turn out that in all our trials and tribulations of spirit during the first part of this century we as a people have been painfully apprehending the meaning of our time and now in this moment of testing there may come clear at last the vision which will guide us to the authentic creation of the 20th Century – our Century.* * *Consider four areas of life and thought in which we may seek to realize such a vision:First, the economic. It is for America and for America alone to determine whether a system of free economic enterprise – an economic order compatible with freedom and progress – shall or shall not prevail in this century. We know perfectly well that there is not the slightest chance of anything faintly resembling a free economic system prevailing in this country if it prevails nowhere else. What then does America have to decide?Some few decisions are quite simple. For example: we have to decide whether or not we shall have for ourselves and our friends fr
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Question 1.1. A student nurse practitioner asks her preceptor about the origins of different tissues, and their cellular origins during the process of development. Which of the following statements by the preceptor best describes the process of cell differentiation? (Points : 3)“Cells of the hematopoietic system produce the appropriate body cells that are required at each stage of development.”“A single stem cell differentiates into approximately 200 different types of cells.”“A fertilized ovum undergoes a series of divisions, yielding many different cell types.”“Cells differentiate into necessary body cells, peaking after conception, and ceasing near the time of birth.”Question 2.2. A 77-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of stomach cancer has been found to have metastases in his liver. The patient and his family are surprised at this turn of events, stating that they don’t see how he could have developed cancer in his liver. Which of the following facts would underlie the reply that the care team provides? (Points : 3)The parenchymal tissue of the liver is particularly susceptible to secondary malignancies.The portal circulatory system brings venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract into the liver.Hepatic stromal tissue shares characteristics with cancerous cells, including lack of anchorage dependence.The proximity of the liver to the stomach allows for direct spread of cancerous cells due to a lack of contact inhibition.Question 3.3. The NP is teaching a group of older adults about the value of including foods containing antioxidants in their diet. Which of the following statements best captures the rationale underlying the NPs advice?(Points : 3)Antioxidants inhibit the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS).Antioxidants prevent the formation of superoxide dismutase.Antioxidants react nonspecifically with molecules.Antioxidants prevent the occurrence of cell dysplasia. Question 4.4. The nurse practitioner is providing care for a patient with a diagnosis of cirrhosis, and he notes that the patient’s sclerae are jaundiced. The nurse practitioner recalls that jaundice is caused by excess accumulation of bilirubin, a pigment that can accumulate in which part of the cell? (Points : 3)NucleusCytoplasmGolgi apparatusRough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Question 5.5. Which of the following patients of a primary care nurse practitioner would not require extra screening for cancer? (Points : 3)A 51-year-old woman whose grandmother died of breast cancerA 48-year-old man who takes immunosuppressant drugs following a kidney transplantA 50-year-old male who is obese and has a low-fiber, high-fat dietA 38-year-old female with Down syndrome and congenital scoliosisQuestion 6.6. A new older female patient at a long-term care facility has a diagnosis of type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1). As part of the intake assessment protocol for the facility, the clinical educator is teaching the care staff about the diagnosis. Which of the following statements most accurately conveys an aspect of neurofibromatosis? (Points : 3)“The neurofibroma lesions are unsightly for the patient, but they are not painful.“Her diagnosis puts her at higher risk of developing a malignant neoplasm.”“She is living with an example of an autosomal recessive disorder.”“The patient is likely to be photosensitive as a result of the disease.”Question 7.7. A child possesses a trait that is the result of the interaction of two different genes, neither of which could have produced the trait independently. Which of the following explanations best captures the genetic explanation for this? (Points : 3)The trait is an expression of multiple alleles.Epistasis has dictated the phenotypic outcome.The phenomenon is an example of polygenic inheritance.The outcome is the result of the interaction between collaborative genes.Question 8.8. Which of the following statements most accurately conveys an aspect of cell injury due to impaired calcium homeostasis? (Points : 3)Normal intracellular calcium ion levels are higher than extracellular levels.Ischemia and certain toxins cause a decrease in cytosolic calcium.Injured cells tend to accumulate calcium.Low calcium levels cause an activation of damaging enzymes.Question 9.9. A group of researchers has identified that the prevalence of two particular genetic disorders share a statistical correlation. Which of the following statements best conveys the genetic rationale for this situation? (Points : 3)There is likely a cause-and-effect relationship between the two genes responsible.The chromosomes containing each gene are likely closely situated.The genes causing each disorder are likely in the same section of the same chromosome.The disorders likely share the same locus. Question 10.10. A male patient of a nurse practitioner has an autosomal dominant disorder. The patient and his partner are considering starting a family. Which of the patient’s following statements indicates the patient has an adequate understanding of the genetic basis of this health problem? (Points : 3)“I know there’s no way of accurately determining the chance that my child will inherit the disease.”“My children who don’t have the disease still run the risk of passing it on to their children.”“I know that new genetic mutations won’t occur between generations.”“I know that a single mutant allele is to blame for the health problem.”Question 11.11. As part of an orientation to a genetic counseling practice, a group of medical students is differentiating between autosomal recessive disorders and autosomal dominant disorders. Which of the following statements is true of autosomal recessive disorders? (Points : 3)They can manifest when present in one or both gene pairs.There is a one in two chance of an affected child in each pregnancy with an affected mother.They tend to have a more uniform symptomatology than autosomal dominant disorders.The associated disorders are usually attributable to abnormalities in structural proteins.Question 12.12. The nurse practitioner working in occupational health has been asked to speak to a group of factory workers about the importance of wearing gloves when working with strong chemicals such as turpentine and paint thinner. Which of the following characteristics of cell membranes underlies the nurse’s teaching? (Points : 3)Cell membranes are impermeable to all but lipid-soluble substances.Cell membranes have lipids that have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.Cell membranes contain receptors for hormones and biologically active substances.Transmembrane proteins can pass through the cell membrane into the intracellular environment.Question 13.13. The NP is providing care for a 21-year-old female patient with gas gangrene of a compound fracture in her arm. Which of the following assessment findings would the nurse most reasonably expect to find when caring for a patient with a diagnosis of gas gangrene? (Points : 3)Inflammation of the affected tissueA positive culture for StaphylococcusSpreading edemaImpaired alveolar gas exchange Question 14.14. A community health nurse practitioner is teaching a group of female high school students about the importance of regular Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The nurse recognizes that which of the following items underlies the rationale for this teaching? (Points : 3)The active substitution of normal cells in the cervix correlates to cancer risk.Undifferentiated stem cells are an early indicator of cervical cancer.Cancer of the uterine cervix develops incrementally at a cellular level.Dysplasia in the connective tissue of the cervix is a strong precursor to cancer.Question 15.15. Which target of both chemotherapy and radiation treatment accounts for adverse as well as therapeutic effects? (Points : 3)Cell-surface receptorsCirculating hormone levelsBlood vesselsRapidly proliferating cells Question 16.16. A patient who has a diagnosis of lung cancer is scheduled to begin radiation treatment. The NP providing pretreatment education is explaining some of the potential unwanted effects of the treatment. Which of the following statements by the nurse is most accurate? (Points : 3)“Some patients experience longer-term irritation of skin adjacent to the treatment site.”“Sometimes you might find that your blood takes longer to clot than normal.”“The changes that you might see are normally irreversible.”“The unwanted effects will be limited to the exposed portions of your skin.”Question 17.17. The family of a 68-year-old man who is in the end stages of small cell lung cancer is distraught at his visible body wasting that has worsened in recent weeks. Which of the following phenomena best accounts for the patient’s anorexia and cachexia? (Points : 3)Inadequate cellular metabolism of glucose results from tumor factorsHigh fat losses coupled with preservation of muscle mass exaggerate the appearance of wastingProducts of the tumor itself as well as a hypermetabolic state cause cachexiaInadequate food intake due to symptoms and treatment results in loss of both muscle and fatQuestion 18.18. The nurse practitioner is seeing a client who has an acute exacerbation of Crohn’s disease. The NP recognizes the fact that the disease involves the inflammation and irritation of the intestinal lining. Which of the following types of tissue is most likely involved in the patient’s pathology? (Points : 3)Simple columnar epitheliumGlandular epitheliumSimple cuboidal eptheliumStratified epithelium Question 19.19. Which of the following pregnant women has most likely encountered the greatest increase in the risk that her child will have a fetal anomaly? (Points : 3)A woman with diagnoses of syphilis and cirrhosis of the liverA woman who has herpes simplex and recently recovered from endocarditisA woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome and tuberculosisA woman with diagnoses of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathyQuestion 20.20. A nurse practitioner employed in the emergency department admits a patient who has experienced severe frostbite to his hands and toes after becoming lost on a ski trail. The NP recognizes that which of the following phenomena has caused the tissue damage? (Points : 3)Decreased blood viscosity has resulted in interstitial bleeding.Reactive vasodilation has compromised perfusion.Autonomic nervous stimulation has resulted in injury.Decreased blood flow has induced hypoxia.Question 21.21. A nurse practitioner employed in a hospitalist notices that a patient is experiencing muscle atrophy following 2 weeks in traction after a motor vehicle accident. Which of the following factors has most likely contributed to the atrophy of the patient’s muscle cells? (Points : 3)High levels of insulin and IGF-1 in the patient’s blood during immobilizationDenervation of the affected muscles during the time of tractionA reduction of skeletal muscle use secondary to the traction treatmentReduced oxygen consumption and cellular function that ensures muscle cell survivalQuestion 22.22. An infant who is four days postpartum has been diagnosed with a single-gene disorder. The parents of the child have a number of questions about the etiology of the health problem, which the physician is attempting to address in detail. Which of the following teaching points most accurately captures an aspect of single-gene congenital disorders? (Points : 3)Affected genes are present on autosomal chromosomes rather than sex chromosomes.The majority of single-gene disorders manifest near the time of puberty.A particular defect can be caused by mutations at one of several different loci.Single-gene disorders are associated with existing rather than new mutations.Question 23.23. A researcher is involved in the production of insulin through recombinant DNA technology. Which of the following statements could the researcher best provide as a rationale for her work? (Points : 3)The gene fragment responsible for insulin production can be isolated and reproduced.Particular bacteria are capable of insulin production.It is possible to reproduce the chromosome responsible for insulin production.Recombination of DNA base pairs can result in a gene that will produce insulin.Question 24.24. A 6-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is being assessed at a community health clinic. Which of the following assessments would be the health care professional’s lowest priority? (Points : 3)A test of the child’s visual acuityA musculoskeletal assessmentTests of kidney functionCardiovascular assessment Question 25.25. Following a biopsy, a 54-year-old man has been diagnosed as having a benign neoplastic tumor. Which of the following characteristics most likely applies to his tumor? (Points : 3)The tumor is poorly approximated and has the potential to break loose.The tumor may secrete hormones or cytokines.The well-differentiated neoplastic cells are clustered together in a single mass.It has a rapid rate of growth and can induce ischemia.
1. A 40-year-old woman who experiences severe seasonal allergies has been referred by her family physician to an allergist for weekly allergy injections. The woman is confused as to why repeated exposure to substances that set off her allergies would ultimately benefit her. Which of the following phenomena best captures the rationale for allergy desensitization therapy? (Points : 3)Repeated exposure to offending allergens binds the basophils and mast cells that mediate the allergic response.Exposure to allergens in large, regular quantities overwhelms the IgE antibodies that mediate the allergic response.Repeated exposure stimulates adrenal production of epinephrine, mitigating the allergic response.Injections of allergens simulate production of IgG, which blocks antigens from combining with IgE.
Question 2.2. A 14-year-old boy has been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. Which of the following pathophysiological phenomena is most responsible for his symptoms? (Points : 3)The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is lysing many of the boy’s neutrophils.Viruses are killing some of his B cells and becoming incorporated into the genomes of others.The EBV inhibits the maturation of white cells within his peripheral lymph nodes.The virus responsible for mononucleosis inhibits the maturation of myeloblasts into promyelocytes.Question 3.3. A 66-year-old female patient has presented to the emergency department because of several months of intermittently bloody stools that has recently become worse. The woman has since been diagnosed with a gastrointestinal bleed secondary to overuse of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that she takes for her arthritis. The health care team would realize that which of the following situations is most likely?(Points : 3)The woman has depleted blood volume due to her ongoing blood loss.She will have iron-deficiency anemia due to depletion of iron stores.The patient will be at risk for cardiovascular collapse or shock.She will have delayed reticulocyte release. Question 4.4. Which of the following patients is most likely to benefit from transplantation of thymic tissue or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-compatible bone marrow? (Points : 3)A 12-year-old girl with a history of epilepsy and low IgG levels secondary to phenytoin useA 7-year-old boy whose blood work indicates decreased IgA and IgG with increased IgMA 6-year-old boy whose pre-B cells are incapable of translation to normal B cellsA 9-year-old girl who has a diagnosis of IgA deficiency Question 5.5. A 29-year-old construction worker got a sliver under his fingernail four days ago. The affected finger is now reddened, painful, swollen, and warm to the touch. Which of the following hematological processes is most likely occurring in response to the infection? (Points : 3)Proliferation of immature neutrophilsHigh circulatory levels of myeloblastsIncreased segmented neutrophil productionPhagocytosis by myelocytes Question 6.6. Sputum samples from a patient with pneumonia contain an infective agent that has a peptidoglycan cell wall, expresses endotoxins, replicates readily in broth and on agar, grows in clusters, has pili, and does not stain when exposed to crystal violet. This pneumonia is most likely: (Points : 3)ChlamydialViralMycoplasmalBacterial Question 7.7. A child has been diagnosed with thalassemia. Which of the following other health problems is the child at risk for? (Points : 3)HypocoagulationIron and ferritin deficienciesSplenomegaly and hepatomegalyNeutropenia Question 8.8. A nurse practitioner is providing prenatal care and education for a first-time expectant mother, 22 weeks’ gestation, who has a diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection. Which of the following statements by the expectant mother demonstrates an adequate understanding of vertical disease transmission and congenital infections? (Points : 3)“Gonorrhea and chlamydia pose the greatest risks of transmission from mother to child.”“I know that my baby will need observation for HIV signs and symptoms in the weeks following my delivery.”“My baby could become infected either across the placenta or during the birth itself.”“Prophylactic immunization will reduce my baby’s chance of being born with an illness.”Question 9.9. As part of his diagnostic workup, a 77-year-old man’s nurse practitioner has ordered blood work that includes ferritin levels. The man is very interested in the details of his health care and is unfamiliar with ferritin and its role. He asks his nurse practitioner to explain the significance of it and the rationale for testing it. Which of the following explanations by the nurse practitioner is most accurate?(Points : 3)“Ferritin is the activated and usable form of iron that your red blood cells can use to transport oxygen.”“Ferritin is a stored form of iron that indirectly shows me whether you would benefit from iron pills.”“Ferritin is a protein-iron complex that allows your red blood cells to make use of the iron that you consume in your diet.”“Ferritin is the form of iron that is transported in your blood plasma to the red blood cells that need it.”Question 10.10. A 16-year-old female has been brought to her primary care nurse practitioner by her mother due to the girl’s persistent sore throat and malaise. Which of the following facts revealed in the girl’s history and examination would lead the nurse practitioner to rule out infectious mononucleosis? (Points : 3)The girl has a temperature of 38.1°C (100.6°F) and has enlarged lymph nodes.Her liver and spleen are both enlarged.Blood work reveals an increased white blood cell count.Chest auscultation reveals crackles in her lower lung fields bilaterally.Question 11.11. A 30-year-old man has spent 5 hours on a cross-country flight seated next to a passenger who has been sneezing and coughing, and the man has been inhaling viral particles periodically. Which of the following situations would most likely result in the stimulation of the man’s T lymphocytes and adaptive immune system? (Points : 3)Presentation of a foreign antigen by a familiar immunoglobulinRecognition of a foreign MHC moleculeRecognition of a foreign peptide bound to a self MHC moleculeCytokine stimulation of a T lymphocyte with macrophage or dendritic cell mediationQuestion 12.12. A 22-year-old female who adheres to a vegan diet has been diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Which of the following components of her diagnostic blood work would be most likely to necessitate further investigation? (Points : 3)Decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV)Decreased hemoglobin and hematocritMicrocytic, hypochromic red cellsDecreased erythropoietin levels Question 13.13. A couple who are expecting their first child have been advised by friends to consider harvesting umbilical cord blood in order to have a future source of stem cells. The couple have approached their nurse practitioner with this request and are seeking clarification of exactly why stem cells are valuable and what they might expect to gain from harvesting them. How can the nurse practitioner best respond to the couple’s inquiry? (Points : 3)“Stem cells can help correct autoimmune diseases and some congenital defects.”“Stem cells can be used to regenerate damaged organs should the need ever arise.”“Stem cells can be used as a source of reserve cells for the entire blood production system.”“Stem cells can help treat some cancers and anemias, but they must come from your child himself or herself.”Question 14.14. A 23-year-old man has received a recent diagnosis of appendicitis following 24 hours of acute abdominal pain. The nurse practitioner providing care for the man is explaining that while it is unpleasant, the inflammation of his appendix is playing a role in his body’s fight against the underlying infectious process. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner eliminate from his teaching for the patient? (Points : 3)“Inflammation can help to remove the body tissue cells that have been damaged by infection.”“Inflammation will start your body on the path to growing new, healthy tissue at the site of infection.“Inflammation helps your body to produce the right antibodies to fight the infection.”“Inflammation ultimately aids in eliminating the initial cause of the cell injury in your appendix.”Question 15.15. A 60-year-old woman is suspected of having non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Which of the following aspects of her condition would help to rule out Hodgkin lymphoma? (Points : 3)Her neoplasm originates in secondary lymphoid structures.The lymph nodes involved are located in a large number of locations in the lymphatic system.The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells has been confirmed.The woman complains of recent debilitating fatigue. Question 16.16. Which of the following statements most accurately conveys an aspect of lymphatic system activity? (Points : 3)B and T lymphocyte development begins in the bone marrow and ends in the peripheral lymphoid structures.B cells and macrophages are released from the bone marrow in their completed state.Stem cells in the lymph nodes initiate and regulate the process of white cell synthesis.Leukocytes bypass vascular circulation and are distributed instead by the lymphatic system.Question 17.17. A nurse practitioner is explaining to a 40-year-old male patient the damage that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could do to lung tissue. Which of the following phenomena would underlie the nurse practitioner’s explanation? (Points : 3)Tissue destruction results from neutrophil deactivation.Nonspecific macrophage activity leads to pulmonary tissue destruction and resulting hemoptysis.Macrophages are unable to digest the bacteria, resulting in immune granulomas.Neutrophils are ineffective against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.Question 18.18. A 2-year-old girl has had repeated ear and upper respiratory tract infections since she was born. A pediatrician has determined a diagnosis of transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. What is the physiological origin of the child’s recurrent infections? (Points : 3)Antibody production by plasma cells is compromised because of impaired communication between B and T cells.The child had a congenital absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and her body is only slowly beginning to produce them independently.The child was born with immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies, suggesting intrauterine infection.The child lacks the antigen presenting cells integral to normal B-cell antibody production.Question 19.19. Following a course of measles, a 5-year-old girl developed scattered bruising over numerous body surfaces and was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). As part of her diagnostic workup, blood work was performed. Which of the following results is most likely to be considered unexpected by the health care team? (Points : 3)Increased thrombopoietin levelsDecreased platelet count Normal vitamin K levelsNormal leukocyte levels Question 20.20. A 60-year-old male patient with an acute viral infection is receiving interferon therapy. The nurse practitioner is teaching the family of the patient about the diverse actions of the treatment and the ways that it differs from other anti-infective therapies. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner exclude? (Points : 3)“Interferon can help your father’s unaffected cells adjacent to his infected cells produce antiviral proteins that limit the spread of the infection.”“Interferon can help limit the replication of the virus that’s affecting your father.”“Interferon helps your father’s body recognize infected cells more effectively.”“Interferon can bolster your father’s immune system by stimulating natural killer cells that attack viruses.”Question 21.21. A 24-year-old woman presents with fever and painful, swollen cervical lymph nodes. Her blood work indicates neutrophilia with a shift to the left. She most likely has: (Points : 3)A mild parasitic infectionA severe bacterial infectionA mild viral infectionA severe fungal infection Question 22.22. A nurse practitioner student is familiarizing herself with the overnight admissions to an acute medical unit of a university hospital. Which of the following patients would the student recognize as being least likely to have a diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome in his or her medical history? (Points : 3)A 66-year-old obese male with left-sided hemiplegia secondary to a cerebrovascular accidentA 90-year-old female resident of a long-term care facility who has been experiencing transient ischemic attacksA 30-year-old female with a diagnosis of left leg DVT and a pulmonary embolismA 21-year-old male with a diagnosis of cellulitis and suspected endocarditis secondary to intravenous drug useQuestion 23.23. The blood work of a 44-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of liver disease secondary to alcohol abuse indicates low levels of albumin. Which of the following phenomena would a clinician be most justified in anticipating? (Points : 3)Impaired immune functionAcid-base imbalancesImpaired thermoregulationFluid imbalances Question 24.24. A nurse practitioner is teaching her colleagues about the role of cytokines in a variety of pathologies. Which of the following teaching points best captures an aspect of the functions and nature of cytokines? (Points : 3)“A particular cytokine can have varied effects on different systems, a fact that limits their therapeutic use.”“Cytokine production is constant over time, but effects are noted when serum levels cross a particular threshold.”“Most cytokines are produced by granular leukocytes, and different cells are capable of producing the same cytokine.”“Cytokine actions are self-limiting in that activation of one precludes activation of other cytokines with similar actions.”Question 25.25. Which of the following phenomena would be least likely to result in activation of the complement system? (Points : 3)Recognition of an antibody bound to the surface of a microbeThe binding of mannose residues on microbial glycoproteinsActivation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on complement proteinsDirect recognition of microbial proteins
1. The nurse practitioner for a cardiology practice is responsible for providing presurgical teaching for patients who are about to undergo a coronary artery bypass graft. Which of the following teaching points best conveys an aspect of the human circulatory system? (Points : 3)“Your blood pressure varies widely between arteries and veins, and between pulmonary and systemic circulation.”“Only around one quarter of your blood is in your heart at any given time.”“Blood pressure and blood volume roughly mimic one another at any given location in the circulatory system.”“Left-sided and right-sided pumping action at each beat of the heart must equal each other to ensure adequate blood distribution.”Question 2.2. A physical assessment of a 28-year-old female patient indicates that her blood pressure in her legs is lower than that in her arms and that her brachial pulse is weaker in her left arm than in her right. In addition, her femoral pulses are weak bilaterally. Which of the following possibilities would her care provider be most likely to suspect? (Points : 3)PheochromocytomaEssential hypertensionCoarctation of the aortaAn adrenocortical disorder Question 3.3. As part of the diagnostic workup for a male patient with a complex history of cardiovascular disease, the care team has identified the need for a record of the electrical activity of his heart, insight into the metabolism of his myocardium, and physical measurements, and imaging of his heart. Which of the following series of tests is most likely to provide the needed data for his diagnosis and care? (Points : 3)Echocardiogram, PET scan, ECGAmbulatory ECG, cardiac MRI, echocardiogramSerum creatinine levels, chest auscultation, myocardial perfusion scintigraphyCardiac catheterization, cardiac CT, exercise stress testingQuestion 4.4. An older adult female patient has presented with a new onset of shortness of breath, and the patient’s nurse practitioner has ordered measurement of her BNP levels along with other diagnostic tests. What is the most accurate rationale for the nurse practitioner’s choice of blood work? (Points : 3)BNP is released as a compensatory mechanism during heart failure and measuring it can help differentiate the patient’s dyspnea from a respiratory pathology.BNP is an indirect indicator of the effectiveness of the RAA system in compensating for heart failure.BNP levels correlate with the patient’s risk of developing cognitive deficits secondary to heart failure and consequent brain hypoxia.BNP becomes elevated in cases of cardiac asthma, Cheyne-Stokes respirations, and acute pulmonary edema, and measurement can gauge the severity of pulmonary effects.Question 5.5. A patient in the intensive care unit has a blood pressure of 87/39 and has warm, flushed skin accompanying his sudden decline in level of consciousness. The patient also has arterial and venous dilation and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. What is this patient’s most likely diagnosis? (Points : 3)Hypovolemic shockSeptic shockNeurogenic shockObstructive shock Question 6.6. A number of patients have presented to the emergency department in the last 24 hours with complaints that are preliminarily indicative of myocardial infarction. Which of the following patients is least likely to have an ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI)? (Points : 3)A 70-year-old woman who is complaining of shortness of breath and vague chest discomfortA 66-year-old man who has presented with fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and cool, moist skinA 43-year-old man who woke up with substernal pain that is radiating to his neck and jawA 71-year-old man who has moist skin, fever, and chest pain that is excruciating when he moves but relieved when at restQuestion 7.7. A 54-year-old man with a long-standing diagnosis of essential hypertension is meeting with his nurse practitioner. The patient’s nurse practitioner would anticipate that which of the following phenomena is most likely occurring? (Points : 3) The patient’s juxtaglomerular cells are releasing aldosterone as a result of sympathetic stimulation.Epinephrine from his adrenal gland is initiating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Vasopressin is exerting an effect on his chemoreceptors and baroreceptors, resulting in vasoconstriction.The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in his lungs causes increases in blood pressure and sodium reabsorption. Question 8.8. A 66-year-old obese man with a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease has been diagnosed with heart failure that his care team has characterized as attributable to systolic dysfunction. Which of the following assessment findings is inconsistent with his diagnosis? (Points : 3)His resting blood pressure is normally in the range of 150/90 and an echocardiogram indicates his ejection fraction is 30%.His end-diastolic volume is higher than normal and his resting heart rate is regular and 82 beats per minute.He is presently volume overloaded following several days of intravenous fluid replacement.Ventricular dilation and wall tension are significantly lower than normal.Question 9.9. Which of the following assessment findings in a newly admitted 30-year-old male patient would be most likely to cause his nurse practitioner to suspect polyarteritis nodosa? (Points : 3)The man’s blood work indicates polycythemia (elevated red cells levels) and leukocytosis (elevated white cells).The man’s blood p